Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 3

Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 3

Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 3
Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 3

 3.1 The Plate of Gold

  Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Stories can be told even in the form of poetry. Such poems are called Narrative poems. Narrative poems do not always follow rhythmic patterns ola fixed rhyme scheme. Such poems are written ¡na style culled ‘Free Verse.’Recall and name some narrative poems you have done/read earlier.

2. Read the poem below and fill in the gaps, choosing appropriate pairs of rhyming words, to make them meaningful.

little things

Little drops of water,

Little groins of …………

Make the mighty ocean

And the pleasant …………

Thus the little minutes,

Humble though they ………..

Make the mighty ages

Of …………

Little deeds of kindness,

Little words of ………..

Make this earth an Eden,

Like the heaven a ………..

Answer:

Little things

Little drops of water,

Little grains of sand

Make the mighty ocean

And the pleasant land.

Thus the little minutes,

Humble though they be,

Make the mighty ages

Of eternity.

Little deeds of kindness,

Little words of love

Make this earth an Eden,

Like the heaven above.

What important message does the above poem convey?

It conveys the message that even little acts and gestures are important.We must not think that something is unimportant or insignificant just because it is small.

1. Pick out words from the poem to complete the sentences meaningfully:

Stephen Hawking was a ________(famous) Astrophysicist.

Renowned.

The Government made a ________(announcement) about their new taxation policy.

Proclamation.

Everyone stood _______ (horrified) when the terrible accident took place.

aghast.

She _________(bargained) with the hawker to reduce the price.

wrangled.

Handicapped people should never be ______ (ignored and avoided)

shunned.

2. Make a list of archaic words from the poem and give their modern equivalents.

Archaic words Modern equivalents

Wondrous           wonderful

Loveth                       loves

Dropt                     dropped

writ                       written

bestowed               presented

3. Rearrange the following in the proper order and insert them into a flow chart as per the poem:

(a) The plate turned to lead, when it was gifted to false-hearted claimants.

(b) Many claimants donated their wealth to receive the plate of gold.

(e) For almost two years, no claimants received the plate of gold.

(d) A plate of gold fell in a temple from Heaven.

(e) The peasant offered comfort and courage to a blind miserable beggar. whom all had ignored.

(f) The priests announced that the one who loved God most of all, would receive the gift from Heaven.

(g) When the priest gave the plate of gold to that peasant, it shone with thrice its lustre.

(h) A simple peasant, who had nothing to offer, came to that temple.

4. Which two sayings about God are conveyed through the poem The Plate of Gold’?

(a) God helps those, who help themselves.

(b) God loves those, who love their fellow beings.

(c) God loves those, who give away their wealth, to please Him.

(d) Service to mankind is service to God.

Answer:

(b) God loves those, who love their fellow beings.

(d) Service to mankind is service to God.

5. ‘But the peasant bowed and prayed to God ‘ What could he have prayed for?

The peasant must have prayed for the well-being of all human beings and asked God to help everyone to bear their troubles bravely.

6. Imagine that you are the peasant. Compose a short prayer to God, after having received the plate of gold. Write it using stylish handwriting.

7. Read other poems by Leigh Hunt. especially ‘Abou Ben Adhem’. Compare the messages in that poem with those in ‘The Plate of Gold’. What do you

observe?

Name the following:

They made a proclamation:

the priests

A gift from heaven:

a plate of gold

People assembled at this time:

midday

The plate became this again when it touched the floor:

gold

Complete the following:

The plate of gold could be claimed by _______.

the person who loved his fellow beings the best

The priests gifted the plate of gold to ______.

a man who within the year had distributed his whole estate among the poor

The poor peasant offered the blind beggar _____.

sincere pity and love.

Answer the following:

What magical occurrence shocked the people?

The golden plate turned to lead when touched by the man, and became gold again when it fell on the floor.

This magical occurrence shocked the people.

Pick out an example of Alliteration from the extract.

‘A wondrous plate of gold, whereon these words were writ’. Repetition of the sound of ‘w’.

Pick out an example of Simile from the extract.

‘The news ran as swift as light.’ The movement of the news is directly compared to the movement of light.

Pick out an example of Onomatopoeia from the extract.

‘……… drop it clanging on the floor’. The word ‘clanging’ indicates sound.

Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.

‘……… the priests in solemn council sat and heard’. The correct prose order is: the priests sat and heard in solemn council.

Write if the following sentences are True or False:

The priests did not award the plate to anyone.

False

There were very few beggars near the temple gate.

False

The beggars got a lot of alms.

True

The peasant was well aware of the race for the plate.

False

Give reasons:

Many beggars had collected outside the temple.

The golden plate from Heaven was to be bestowed on the person who loved his fellow beings the most. The people who came to the temple would want to prove their love by giving alms. Hence many beggars had collected outside the temple to receive the bountiful alms.

The pilgrims to the temple showered coins on the beggars.

The golden plate from Heaven was to be bestowed on the person who loved his fellow beings the most. In order to prove that their love was the best and hence they were worthy of the plate, the pilgrims to the temple showered coins on the beggars.

What did the pilgrims fail to do?

The pilgrims failed to see the unhappiness in the eyes of the beggars.

Match the adjectives 

maimed – beggars

outstretched – hands

simple – peasant

sweet – pity

Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.

‘So for another twelve months sat the priests and judged.’ The correct prose order is: So for another twelve months the priests sat and judged.

Pick out an example of Repetition from the extract.

‘Thrice they awarded thrice did Heaven refuse the gift.’ The word thrice is repeated for emphasis and rhythm.

Give reasons:

God had chosen the simple peasant as the most deserving of the plate of gold.

The simple peasant offered the blind beggar sincere sympathy and love, which came from the depth of his heart.

He had no hidden motive for what he did. Hence God chose him as the most deserving of the plate of gold.

‘But the peasant bowed and prayed to God What could he have prayed for?

The peasant must have prayed for the well-being of all human beings, and asked God to help everyone to bear their troubles bravely

Make a list of archaic words from the extract and give their modern equivalents

Archaic words      Modern equivalents

thou                                You

thy                                    Your

o’er                                    Over

thine                                 yours

lovest                               loves

Pick out an example of Inversion from the extract.

And took both palms in his, and softly said.

The correct prose order should be: And took both palms in his, and said softly

Analysis/Appreciation of the Poem

Poem and poet: The Plate of j Gold’ by James Henry Leigh Hunt.

Theme: God loves those who love their fellow beings Service to mankind is service to God.

Tone: A narrative, serious and moralistic.

Structure and stanzas: No uniformity in stanzas or the length of lines.

Rhyme and Rhythm: No rhyme scheme or rhythm; free verse.

Language and Imagery: Archaic language; plenty of imagery, especially when describing the peasant and the beggar.

Figures of Speech: Inversion, Repetition, Onomatopoeia, and Simile

 3.2 The Kite Festival

  Textbook Questions and Answers

Name the festival that you enjoy the most of all. Fill in the facts about that festival.

(a) Name of the festival:_______.

(b) When it is celebrated: _______.

(c) Why it is celebrated: ______.

(d) How it is celebrated: _______.

(e) Special cuisine: _______.

(f) Other special features: _______.

Give the Antonyms und Synonyms of the words below, choosing from those given:

Words           Synonyms           Antonyms

Happily         Joyfully                 Sorrowfully

Traditional    Old-fashioned        Modern

Halt                  pause                   start

Triumph             victory                 defeat

Exotic                foreign               native

Rival                competitor           partner

Soar                   rise                       drop

Brilliance           lustre           dullness

2. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

Fibreglass kites led to creating power – driven aeroplanes.

False

In Gujarat, the kite – festival is celebrated to welcome the Spring.

False

Uttarayana’ starts from Makar Sankranti onwards.

True

Kite – flying in Gujarat, is a competitive sport – cum – festival.

True

The kite – Bazar in Ahmedabad, is open day and night for a week.

True

The special thread for kite – flying is sharpened by adding sugar and glass pieces.

False

3. Using points from the lesson, give the details of the following in a short paragraph for each topic:

Different types of kites.

Traditional kites are made of kite paper and have thin wooden frames. The modern kites may be motorized or made of fibreglass. Exotic kites have marvellous shapes such as that of eagles and snakes. There are also illuminated box-kites called tukals.

International Kite Festival at Ahmedabad.

The International Kite Festival at Ahmedabad is held either at the Sardar Patel Stadium or the Police Stadium. It attracts international kite-flyers as well as local champions. Little Indian paper kites compete with those from Japan, USA, UK and other countries. Exotic kites with marvellous shapes such as eagles and snakes soar in the sky. The Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week, and people crowd the streets through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age- old kite-making skills and how to prepare special thread. At night, illuminated box- kites are sent into the sky.

The kite Bazar of Ahmedabad.

During the Kite Festival at Ahmedabad, the Patang or Kite Bazar, in the heart of Ahmedabad, is open 24 hours a day for a whole week. People crowd the streets and buy their stocks, haggling through the night. Skilled craftsmen demonstrate age-old kite-making skills and how to prepare special thread covered with a mixture of glue and ground glass.

4. You hue just returned after your first experience of the kite – festival in Gujarat/Ahmedabad. You were thrilled with the festivities.

Write a short report about the kite – festival for your local newspaper. Give an attractive headline, a dateline and an account of the kite – festive. Write the report in third person with more use of Passive voice.

You have a friend who lives abroad. Write a letter to your friend describing how you enjoyed the kite-festival.

5.A. Verb forms show both, Tense (Present, Past, Future) and Aspect (Progressive, Perfect,Perfect Progressive):

Progressive (Continuous): be + verb-ing

Present Progressive: He is playing.

Past Progressive: He was playing.

Future Progressive: He will be playing.

Perfect: have / has / hod verb – en / cd

Present Perfect: They have played.

Past Perfect: They had played.

Future Perfect: They will have played.

Perfect Progressive: have/has/had + been + verb – ing

Present Perfect Progressive: We have been playing.

Past Perfect Progressive: We had been playing.

Future Perfect Progressive: We shall have been playing.

5. B. Underline the verb forms in the following sentences and state their Tense and Aspect:

(i) They are waiting for the right winds.

(ii) People were haggling over the price of kites.

(iii) Vendors had been selling kites all through the week.

(iv) Skilled craftsmen had demonstrated age-old skills.

(v) State Tourism Corporation will be organising the International Kite Festival.

(vi) Kite – flyers have demonstrated their skills with exotic kites

Answers

   Tense                       Aspect

i.present           progressive

ii. past                    progressive

iii. past          perfect  progressive

iv. past                  perfect

v. . future           progressive

vi. present            perfect

When is kite-flying at its peak in India?

Kite-flying is at its peak in India during the coming of Spring and during the festival of Makar Sankranti, which coincides with the festival of Uttarayan.

Write how they celebrate the kite-flying festival in Gujarat.

During the kite-flying festival, people of all ages go out into the open to fly kites and to cut’ each others’ kites. In towns and cities, where open spaces are difficult to find, terraces and rooftops are often used to fly the kites.

People of all ages go out into the open to try their luck with their kites.

(Pick out the finite verbs and the infinitives.)

finite verb – go; infinitive – to try

It is also a celebration to mark the end of winter. (Rewrite using ‘which’.)

It is also a celebration which marks the end of winter.

Personal Response:

Do you like flying kites? Why?

I am not a very big fan of kites. I do not like to fly them, but I like to watch other people do so. I used to fly kites earlier; but once I came to know that birds died because of the glass-covered thread, and there were injuries to people too, I stopped this sport.

List the reasons:

The kite-festival at Ahmedabad is very special.

  • The kite-festival at Ahmedabad is very special because:
  • An International Kite Festival is held either at the Sardar Patel Stadium or the Police Stadium.
  • It attracts international kite-flyers as well as local champions.
  • Little Indian paper kites compete with those from Japan, the USA, UK and other countries.
  • Exotic kites with marvellous shapes such as eagles and snakes soar in the sky.
  • The Patang or Kite Bazar in the heart of Ahmedabad is open 24 hours a day for a whole week, and people crowd the streets through the night.
  • Skilled craftsmen demonstrate kite-making age-old skills and how to prepare a special thread.
  • At night, illuminated box-kites are sent into the sky.

How do they celebrate the kite-flying festival in Gujarat?

The kite-flying begins at dawn and continues throughout the day. People of all ages gather in the open, on rooftops and terraces. They compete with each other and are triumphant when someone cuts the thread of a rival. Some people prepare special lines for their kites. There is music in the air and traditional delicacies are specially prepared. An International Kite Festival is organized by the Gujarat State Tourism Corporation.

Complete the following:

A visit to the Patang Bazar proves that _______.

the entire city of Ahmedabad is obsessed with kites

The special thread for kite-flying is prepared by ________.

covering the thread with a mixture of glue and ground glass and allowing it to dry

One of the highlights of this festival is the Patang Bazar, which is open twenty-four hours a day, for a whole week.

(Underline the clauses in the sentence.)

One of the highlights of this festival is the Patang Bazar, which is open twenty-four hours a day, for a whole week.

They add a grand beauty to the dark sky and compete with the brilliance of the stars.

(Rewrite as two separate sentences.)

They add a grand beauty to the dark sky. They compete with the brilliance of the stars.

Personal Response:

What is the care to be taken by children while flying kites?

Children should not run after kites on the road or try to rescue them from trees. This could lead to accidents. They should be careful if they are flying kites from terraces and rooftops. The thread should be handled with care, and there should be no injuries to animals or human beings because of it.

Do as directed:

Pick out two compounds, words from the lesson.

Two compound words: kite-flying, power-driven

Use the following phrase in your own sentence: in the middle of the night.

The baby woke up in the middle of the night and began to play.

Build a word chain of five adjectives :

long → green → naughty → young → grateful → lovely.

Find out four hidden words from the given word:

traditional (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)

traditional: tradition, train, drain, trait

Use the following word in two separate sentences, the word having different meanings (homographs):

watch

(i) The policemen watched the house the whole day.

(ii) I was very upset as I had lost my watch.

Identify the type of sentence:

The little boy would happily pick up his kite and run out into the field.

Assertive sentence.

Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:

In India, however, the tradition of kite-flying has not changed.

In India, however, the tradition of kite-flying has remained the same.

Rewrite in indirect speech:

The harassed mother would often say

to her restless son, “Why don’t you go fly a kite ?”

Answers-

The harassed mother would often ask her restless son why he did not go fly a kite.

Use the following word as a noun and a verb in two separate sentences:

cut

The cut on my hand healed soon, (noun)

I cut my finger when I was slicing a mango, (verb)

You have just returned after your first experience of the kite-festival in Gujarat/Ahmedabad. You were thrilled with the festivities.

Write a short report about the kite festival for your local newspaper. Give an attractive headline, a dateline, and an account of the kite-festival. Write the report in the third person with more use of Passive Voice.

High-Flying Kites Adorn The Sky

Ahmedabad, 17 January: A variety of colourful kites adorned the sky this year during the International Kite Festival here. A record number of countries participated in this annual festival. The famous International Kite Festival, organized by the Gujarat State Tourism Corporation, was held at the Sardar Patel Stadium. 14 countries, including India, participated. The kites were very colourful and in a variety of shapes. There were dragons, eagles, snakes, crocodiles, etc. Some had tiny lights in them, while j some were studded with stones. Excited spectators watched in awe as the kites; soared in the sky, free as birds.

This year, the first prize, a gold-plated cup in the shape of a kite, went to Korea. The Korean team succeeded in keeping their kite in the sky for the longest time. Last year’s winner and the host country, India, J did not stand a chance this year and were ; out of the competition at an early stage. “We will double our efforts for the next year and come out with flying colours,” said Rakesh ) Pandya, captain of the home team. We wish them all the best for the next year, Harsh Mehta.

You have a friend who lives abroad.

Write a letter to him/her describing how you enjoyed the kite-festival,

‘Gulmohar’

Ahmedabad

17 January 2019

Hi Dominic,

How are you? You have hardly written j to me since you went to London. Why the silence?

Yes, I know you are busy, but you can spare some time for an old friend, can’t you?

Here in Ahmedabad, the kite festival is just over. We had a wonderful time flying kites and cheering others. The school was closed for two days, and my friends and I spent one j day watching the competition at the Police Stadium and the other day at the ground near our house, flying an assortment of kites. Our kites were ordinary ones, but you should have seen the exotic kites being flown at the Police Stadium! They were from Japan, the U.S., U.K., Thailand, Korea and other places. They were in the shape of eagles, snakes, crocodiles, dragons, etc. Some had shining tails while some had bejewelled bodies. The competition was very stiff-but guess what! The first prize was won by the Indian team!

Our own competition too was very thrilling. We cut so many kites! We were also awake the whole night shopping for kites and eating. It was really a wonderful time.

Well, I hope that next year you will be back in India and maybe you can come to Ahmedabad during this time. You will certainly enjoy the festival-and the eats! Hope you find time to reply.

Your friend,

Harsh.

 3.3 The Last Leaf

 Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Suppose you suffer from a long – term illness (one or two weeks), what should you do and what should you avoid? Fill up the table of Do’s and Don’ts:

Do’s Don’ts(1) Go to a doctor for a diagnosis. (1) Do not …………..(2) ………… (2) Do not avoid medication on time.(3) Take a suitable diet. (3) Avoid …………..(4) Take rest. (4) Avoid physical stress and exertion.(5) Rest in a properly ventilated room. (5) Do not …………….(6) Have cheerful thoughts, courage, a positive attitude. (6) Do not lose …….. and ………….Answer:
Do’s                                  Don’ts(1) Go to a doctor for diagnosis. (1) Do not try any medication on your own.(2) Take medicines on time. (2) Do not avoid medication on time.(3) Take a suitable diet. (3) Avoid junk food.(4) Take rest. (4) Avoid physical stress and exertion.(5) Rest in a properly ventilated room. (5) Do not close doors and windows.(6) Have cheerful thoughts, courage, a positive attitude. (6) Do not lose hope and courage.
2. You already know that Homophones are pairs of words that sound the same but differ in spellings and meanings:For example sum and someThere are some words that even have the same spelling and pronunciations, but have different meanings in different situations or contexts.For example: bat (a bird) and ki (sports / games equipment)Such words are called Homographs.

Make pairs of sentences of your own to point out the different meanings of the following Homographs

Fine

(i) The new driver had to pay a fine for breaking the signal.(ii) We decided to go for a picnic only if the day was fine.

wave:

(i) Ronny waved to his father before going for the picnic.(ii) The waves in the sea before the tsunami were huge.

bear:

(i) The grizzly bear hibernates during winter.(ii) Simi could not bear to see the two cats fighting.

rose:

(i) The rose is a beautiful flower.(ii) The teacher rose from her chair to explain the sum.

lead:

(i) Lead is used in pencils.(ii) A good king leads his country to prosperity.

match:

(i) Though we lost the match, we were not upset,(ii) “Buy the shoes only if they match the dress,” said mother to Madhu.

second:

(i) Every second counts when we are writing an examination paper.(ii) “Take the second turn on the right,” directed the policeman.

object:

(i) The lawyer objected to what the witness said.(ii) The objects on the table were taken away before the girl could see them properly.

1. Read the story and choose the appropriate meanings:

Struggling artists:(i) artists fighting with one another(ii) artists trying hard to earn a living(iii) artists painting war scenesAnswer:(ii) artists trying hard to earn a living

Skeleton branches:(i) bones branching out from joints(ii) leafy branches(iii) bare branchesAnswer:(iii) bare branches
Wielded the brush:(i) painted skillfully(ii) broke the brush(iii) joined the broken brushAnswer:(i) painted skillfully
Palette:(i) the tip of the brush(ii) a board used by artists to mix colours(iii) a fancy dinner plateAnswer:(ii) a board used by artists to mix colours
Masterpiece:(i) a master who promotes peace(ii) the very first creation of on artist(iii) an exceptionally beautiful work of artAnswer:(iii) an exceptionally beautiful work of art

2. Make pairs of sentences to show the difference between the meanings of the following Homographs from the story:

interest
(i) The bank promised a high rate of interest to its customers.(ii) The audience soon lost interest in the boring match.
well
(i) The well was so deep that one could not see the water.(ii) The Principal sent Sumeet home as he was not feeling well.
left
(i) When Roma turned to her left, she saw a long line of taxis.(ii) The Mayor had left before it begem to rain.
just
(i) The children had just left when the magician arrived.(ii) It is the duty of a judge to be just.
mind
(i) “Mind your language!” said the man to the rude young boy angrily.(ii) We should try not to have any negative thoughts in our mind.

3. State the facts about the story:

Main characters:Problem:Attempts made to solve it:Climax / Turning point:Problem solved:End:
Main characters: Sue, Johnsy, the doctor and BehrmanProblem: Johnsy’s negative attitude, her lack of will to live and the fancy that she would die when the last leaf fell from the ivy vine.Attempts made to solve it: The doctor informed Sue that Johnsy would recover only if she had the wish to live. Sue looked after her well and tried to make her think positively. Finally, Behrman painted a leaf on the wall so that the last leaf would never fall, and Johnsy would live.Climax/Tuming point:(i) When Johnsy sees the last leaf still clinging to the vine, and realizes that she has been given a message that she was wicked to want to die.(ii) The sweeper finding Behrman in very wet clothes and shoes, with scattered brushes and a palette with yellow and green colors mixed on it.Problem solved: Johnsy realizes her mistake and begins to look forward to life again.End: Though Johnsy lives, Behrman, who painted the last leaf, contracts pneumonia due to exposure to rain and snow. He dies due to his efforts. He dies so that Johnsy lives.

4. Say whether the following statements are right or wrong:

Sue and Johnsy were very close friends.

Right

Sue was a rich girl.

Wrong

Johnsy was hopeful that she will live.

Wrong

Behrman was a hard-hearted person.

Wrong

The last leaf fell off during the rain.

Right

Johnsy realized that her thinking was wrong.

Right

Behrman did not know anything about the last leaf on the ivy.

Wrong

5. Correct the following statements:

Sue and Johnsy were good neighbours.

Sue and Johnsy were very good friends.

Johnsy was eager to recover from her illness.

Johnsy had made up her mind that she was not going to recover.

Sue ignored Johnsy completely.

Sue looked after Johnsy well.

Behrman was a very heartless person.

Behrman was a very kind-hearted person.

The real ivy leaf did not fall off at all.

The real ivy leaf fell off the night it rained and snowed.

The last leaf was a real leaf that survived.

The last leaf was a leaf painted on the wall by Behrman.

6. Read the descriptions of the following from the story and describe any one of them using your own words:

The ivy vine
Outside the window there was an old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots. It had climbed half way up the brick wall. It had lost most of its leaves due to the cold autumn. Only a few bare branches were left, clinging to the bricks.

Berman


Berman was a struggling painter who lived on the ground floor of the building where Sue and Johnsy lived. He was a failure in art, for though he had been painting for forty years, he had not made any money. He always dreamt about painting a masterpiece, and often spoke about it, but had never got round to doing it. He served as a model for the young artists in the colony, who could not afford other models.
He was shocked when he heard about Johnsy’s fancy and thought that the place was not good for her. He was a generous, compassionate and kind- hearted man. Even though he was old, he braved the wind, rain and snow to go out and paint the last leaf on the wall. He died in order that Johnsy could live.
The last leaf that Johnsy saw
The last leaf that Johnsy saw was not a real leaf but a leaf painted on the wall by Behrman. It was dark green near its stem, but its edges were tinted with yellow. It hung from a branch some twenty feet above the ground. Naturally it never fluttered or moved when the wind blew. It was Behrman’s masterpiece and had been painted the night when the real last leaf had fallen.

7. You have learnt that a Clause is a group of words that has a Subject and a Verb, and is a part of a larger sentence:

In the sentence, ‘We returned home, when school was over’ there are two clauses.
(i) We returned home and
(ii) When school was over’.
The first one makes complete sense, so it is called Main I Principal Clause. The second one is not complete by itself. It depends on the Main Clause to convey proper sense. So it is called Dependant or Subordinate Clause. ‘When’ is the joining word, and it is called o Subordinator.

In the following sentences, point out the Main Clause and Subordinate Clause. Encircle the Subordinator.

There was a colony, where many struggling artists lived.

Main Clause: There was a colony
Subordinate Clause: where many struggling artists lived
Subordlnator: where

Though Sue looked after her well, Johnsy showed no signs of improvement.

Main Clause: Johnsy showed no signs of improvement
Subordinate Clause: Though Sue looked after her very well
Subordlnator: Though

Sue thought that she had fallen asleep.

Main Clause: Sue thought
Subordinate Clause: that she had fallen asleep
Subordinator: that

Old Behrman was a painter, who lived on the ground floor.

Main Clause: Old Behrman was a painter
Subordinate Clause: who lived on the ground floor
Subordlnator: who

Johnsy was sleeping when the two went upstairs.

Main Clause: Johnsy was sleeping
Subordinate Clause: when the two went upstairs
Subordinator: when

I want to see the last one before it falls.

Main Clause: I want to see the last one
Subordinate Clause: before It falls
Subordinator: before

8. Compose an imaginary dialogue between Sue and Johns, when I realise what Behrman had done for Johnsy:

Johnsy: Sue, did you know that Mr. Behrman had painted that last leaf?
Sue: No, I knew it just now, too.
Johnsy: Sue, that means that he got wet that night painting the last leaf!
Sue: And got pneumonia after that!
Johnsy: Yes, because of my stupid fancy that I would die when the last leaf fell.
Sue: It certainly was a stupid idea.
Johnsy: I feel so guilty now! Sue, it is as if …. as if …. he died for me!
Sue: Yes, so that you may live.
Johnsy: Oh, what a wonderful, compassionate man! To go out in that cold, wintry, snowy night just to paint that leaf!
Sue: And develop pneumonia ….
Johnsy: What can I do now? How can I ever thank him?
Sue: I know what you can do!
Johnsy: What? What?
Sue: Paint your masterpiece of the Bay of Naples and dedicate it to him.
Johnsy: Yes, I think that’s a good idea.Yes, I’ll do that. Thanks, Sue.

What did the doctor tell Sue about Johnsy?

The doctor told Sue that Johnsy had one chance in ten. That chance was for Johnsy to want to live, and Johnsy had made up her mind that she was not going to get well. He also told Sue that medicines alone would not help if the patient did not want to live.

Describe the ivy vine outside the window.

Outside the window, there was an old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots. It had climbed half way up the brick wall. It had lost most of its leaves due to the cold autumn. Only a few bare branches were left, clinging to the bricks.

Explain the false belief that Johnsy had about the ivy vine.

Johnsy felt that when the last leaf fell off from the ivy vine, she too would die.

Who was Behrman? Explain why Sue called Him to their flat.

Behrman was a struggling painter who lived on the ground floor of the building where Sue and Johnsy lived. He served as a model for the young artists in the colony. Sue called him to their flat to act as a model for the old man that she was drawing.

What happened that night and what did the two friends see when the window was open?

That night it rained and snowed. A fierce wind blew. When the window was open, the two friends saw one ivy leaf still clinging to the vine. It was dark green near the stem, but its edges were tinted with yellow. It hung from a branch some twenty feet above the ground.

What did Johnsy declare when she saw the last ivy leaf?

When Johnsy saw the last ivy leaf, she declared that it would fall that day and she would die at the same time.

What change came over Johnsy the next day? Why?

Johnsy now felt that she had been wicked earlier and it was a sin to want to die. She wanted to sit up in bed and was ready to have broth and milk. She looked forward to the future and hoped to paint the Bay of Naples some day. It was the sight of the last leaf staying on the vine that was the reason for her change.

Explain what happened to Mr. Behrman.

Mr. Behrman had gone out in the rain and snow to paint the last leaf on the wall. He had got thoroughly wet and became ill with pneumonia. He died in a hospital two days later.

Who had saved Johnsy’s life and how?

Mr. Behrman had saved Johnsy’s life. He had realized that Johnsy had a fancy that she would die after the last leaf; fell. He wanted to make certain that the last J leaf never fell, and hence he painted a false leaf on the wall. The sight of the persistent leaf, which Johnsy thought was real, made her come to her senses and want to live.

What type of attitude should a person have when he/she is ill?

When a person is ill, he/she should have a positive attitude. He/She should have cheerful thoughts and courage and try to keep the mind occupied. Only then will medication help.

Do you think that Johnsy was talking nonsense? Or did she have some forewarning that she would die?

I think that Johnsy was talking nonsense. How can the number of leaves on an ivy vine indicate when she was going to die? This is just having negative thoughts when the mind is idle and frightened.

Write who said the given words and to whom:

The words Who said To whom
(1) Open the window
(2) She is very ill and weak
(3) I have not heard of such a thing.
(4) It is the last one.
Answer:
The words –  who said   –  To whom
(1) Open the window  – Johnsy –  Sue
(2) She is very ill and weak  – Sue  – Behrman
(3) I have not heard of such a thing.-  Behrman – Sue
(4) It is the last one – Johnsy – Sue

Write the words given below in the proper columns:

idiotic, fancy, foolish, weak, place, away, upstairs, work, rain, continuously,closed, window, fierce, bravely, branch,surely
Nouns             Adjectives             Adverbs
fancy, place     idiotic                     away
work, rain      foolish                   upstairs
window             weak               continuosly
branch            closed                bravely
fierce                                             surely

Do as directed:

Pick out two words from the lesson whose first letter is silent.

pneumonia, gnarled.

Use the following phrase in your own sentence : above the ground

During monsoon, the clouds are just a few feet above the ground in Ooty.
Add two letters before the given word to form three separate words:
own
brown, crown, drown

Find out four hidden words from the given word:

twilight (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)
twilight: light, tight, wilt, tilt

Use the following word and its homophone in two separate sentences: earn

(i) It is difficult to earn a living if you are illiterate.
(ii) I placed the flowers in an urn and poured water into it.

Pick out the main clause and subordinate clause from the following sentence:

Medicines alone did not help if the patient did not wish to live.

Medicines alone did not help- the main clause if the patient did not wish to live-subordinate clause.

Rewrite in indirect speech :

“Open the window; I want to see,” she
ordered. Sue obeyed.

She ordered Sue to open the window as she wanted to see. Sue obeyed.

Pick out the non-finite verb and state what it is:

He always talked of his coming masterpiece.
coming – present participle

Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:

In those days, it was not easy to cure pneumonia patients.

In those days, it was difficult to cure pneumonia patients.

Rewrite using the positive form of the adjective:

They are falling faster now.

They were not falling as fast as before.

 3.4 Leisure 

Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Discuss in groups and share with one another:

The daily routine of your mother and father on working days
(Points: what time they get up – what time they leave for work – what time they return home – have lunch – dinner – bedtime, etc.)
How your family relaxes on weekends
(Points: rest at home – visit relatives – shopping – malls – movies – gardens – catch up on housework, etc.)

When you go for a picnic, what and how do you enjoy it?

(Points: go to the beach/mall /garden/movies etc. – relax and enjoy by yourself – sing songs – go in big groups – go as a family – go to restaurants for food, etc.)

Do you spend time admiring and thinking over the beauties of nature? Elaborate on your response.

(Points: no beautiful nature around/ gardens nearby – like enjoying natural beauties – prefer city life – like animals and birds – visit zoos and parks. etc.)

2. When a poet I writer attempts (o describe something in words, so that it appeals to our five senses (sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste) he/she has used a des ice called Imager.

For example a host of golden daffodils’.
to a chasm, deep and vast and wide’.
Go through other poems in your textbook or other books and find outlines that contain Imagery. Write them does n along with the name of the poem and line/stanza number.

3. Prepare un Acrostic from the word ‘Leisure’. The words should be related to what one likes to do in free time:

L ………..
E ………….
I …………
S ………..
U ………..
R
E …………

Laze around
Enjoy movies
Initiate games
Sleep
Undertake to clean house
Read stories
Exercise

 Say Where:

………… do the cows and sheep stand? …………..

Beneath the branches of trees.

………… do squirrels store their food? ………….

In the grass.

………….. do stars shine in the daytime …………..

In the streams.

………….. does Beauty’s smile begin? ……………….

In her eyes.


2. Think and answer in your own words:
What could have inspired the poet to compose this poem? Do you think it relates to our present-day life? Defend your choice.
The poet must have seen the busy lives of people around him, who are always in a hurry and have no leisure to look at the beauty around. Yes, it certainly relates to our present life, which keeps getting busier and busier. Today, with the Internet, the mobile phone, the computer, and social networking sites, our lives are getting more I and more artificial and further from nature than ever before.

Which line proves that in our busy lives we do not even have a fraction of a second to enjoy nature’s beauty?

The lines are :
No time to see, when woods we pass
Where squirrels hide their nuts in the grass?
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Are streams full of stars, like skies at night?
No time to turn at Beauty’s glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance?
No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.

‘Beauty’ in stanza 5 to 6 can refer to a beautiful maiden as well as nature itself. Explain when and how nature ‘dances’ and also ‘smiles’.

Nature dances during spring and: summer, when the leaves of trees and the flowers sway in the breeze. Nature smiles at the beginning of spring when the plants begin to once again bloom slowly.
Why does the poet call our life ‘poor’?
The poet calls our life ‘poor’ because we are always anxious and under stress. We are completely cut off from nature and cannot relax and enjoy its beauty. He feels that this type of life is a ‘poor’ life.

3. You have learned that when u human attribute is given to anything that is not a human being or it is spoken of as a person, the Figure of Speech used is culled as ‘Personification’:

Pick out two examples of Personification from the poem

(i) ‘No time to turn at Beauty’s glance, I And watch her feet, how they can; dance?’ Nature has been given the human qualities of ‘glancing’ and ‘dancing’.
(ii) ‘No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich the smile her eyes began.’ Nature has been given the human quality of ‘smiling’.

Pick out from the poem, two examples of each of the following Figures of Speech:

Alliteration
(i) We have no time to stand and stare.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’.
(ii) ‘Streams full of stars, like skies at; night.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’.
Simile
(i) ‘And stare as long as sheep or cows.’ Here, a direct comparison has been made between sheep and cows.
(ii) ‘Streams full of stars, like skies at night.’ Here, a direct comparison has been made to the night skies.

Metaphor

(i) ‘No time to turn at Beauty’s; glance.’ Here nature has been implicitly compared to a beautiful woman.
(ii) ‘Enrich the smile her eyes began.’ Here the blooming of flowers has been implicitly compared to a woman smiling.
The poet opens his poem with a question. Is the question asked to receive some answer? No. It is a question used to emphasize and stress the fact that modern man has no time to enrich his life from nature. Such a device used by poets falls under the Figure of Speech called ‘Interrogation or ‘Rhetorical Question’.

Refer to the poem ‘The Pilgrim’ and find examples of Interrogation.

‘What is this life, if full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare?’
Here the poet asks a question to emphasize and stress the fact that modern man has no time to appreciate nature.
(Note: The lines in stanzas 2,3,4,5 and 6 are also examples of Interrogation.)

Say where the images from mature given in the poem exist:

Air/Land/Water

beneath the thoughts …………..

Land

squirrel hide nuts in grass …………

Land

streams in day time ………..

Water

stars/ skies at night …………

Air

Make a paraphrase of the poem ‘Leisure’ in your own simple words. Write down in your notebook.

In this poem, the poet, W.H. Davies, questions the type of life we are leading if we have no time to appreciate the beauties of nature. He says that we have no time to stand beneath the trees and stare as sheep and cows do. When we are walking through the woods we have no time to watch where the squirrels hide their food in the grass. We have no time to look at streams that sparkle and a twinkle in broad daylight and appear to be full of stars like the skies at night.
We have no time to watch when a beautiful young girl dances, or wait for her lips to complete the smile which started in her eyes. (We can also say that ‘Beauty’ is nature, and we have no time to see trees swaying In the breeze or flowers blooming slowly.)
In the concluding lines, the poet repeats that our life is a poor life if it is full of cares and worries with no time to appreciate and enjoy the beauty of nature.

What does the poet want us to stare at and gain from it?

The poet wants us to spare some time from our busy schedules to look at the beauty of nature and enjoy it.

Enlist the beautiful things in nature that we overlook.

We overlook:
squirrels hiding their food in the grass
twinkling and sparkling streams
a beautiful girl smile and dance/trees swaying in the breeze and flowers blooming slowly.

Analysis/ Appreciation Of The Poem

Poem and poet: ‘Leisure’ by William Henry Davies.Theme: The poet regrets that ours is a poor life if it is full of cares and worries and we have no time to appreciate and enjoy the beauty of nature.

Tone: Serious and analytical; reflective poem.

Structure and stanzas: The stanzas are of two lines each; seven couplets with lines of equal length.

Rhyme and Rhythm: The rhyme scheme is aa, bb, cc, and so on, with the ending words of each couplet rhyming.

Language and Imagery: The language is simple; the poem has many figures of speech and is full of imagery when the poet describes the beauty of nature.

Figures of Speech: Alliteration, Personification, Simile, Metaphor, Repetition, Interrogation.

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