Maharashtra board class 9th English kumar bharti solutions Unit 2

Maharashtra board class 9th English kumar bharti solutions Unit 2

Maharashtra board class 9th English kumar bharti solutions Unit 2

2.1 Invictus

 Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up: 

Form groups of four. Discuss what you actually feel and do In difficult situations and some of the things you could do and would like to do In those situations.

In difficult situations :

What I actually feel and do : 

feel frightened and corf used

feel depressed and cry

run away and hide

tell lies or blame others.

What I could do and would like to do : 

be calm and brave

accept the situation and look for solutions

take due responsibility for what has happened

share my problems and look for support. (Students can add their own points and discuss this activity in groups.)

Choose the correct option :

1. Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole.

There is a pit between two poles which you cannot see at night.

I am in a pit that is covered with a black sheet.

The circumstances are as bad as they can be, with nothing to hope for from any corner.

The circumstances are as bad as they can be, with nothing to hope for from any corner. 

2. In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud.

I fell down and cried aloud.

I have not expressed my grief even when I had to suffer great pain.

I freed myself from a difficult situation and cried.

I have not expressed my grief even when I had to suffer great pain.

3. Under the bludgeonings of chance, My head is bloody …

I have suffered many setbacks and losses, for which there was no reason.

I got hurt due to my own faults.

My enemies hit me till I started bleeding.

I have suffered many setbacks and losses, for which there was no reason. 

4. And yet the menace of the years, Finds, and shall find me, unafraid.

My enemies threaten me but cannot find me.

A great bully found me once, but shall not find me in future.

Even though I am growing old, I am not, and shall not be, afraid.

Even though I am growing old, I am not, and shall not be, afraid. 

5. How charged with punishments the scroll….

The scroll is very expensive.

I may have to pay for many of my mistakes.

I have to pay money as punishment.

I may have to pay for many of my mistakes. 

6. I am the master of my fate.

I take responsibility for everything that happens in my life.

My fate is my master.

I am the master of this world.

I take responsibility for everything that happens in my life. 

7. I am the captain of my soul.

I am the captain of a team.

My soul is the captain of my team.

My actions are the result of my own feelings.

My actions are the result of my own feelings. 

Write the rhyme scheme of the poem.

Rhyme scheme: abab. 

Read the poem ‘Where lies the land ……..’ by A.C. Clough.

What is the poet thankful for?

The poet is thankful for his unconquerable soul. 

What does the poet have full control over?

The poet has full control over his fate, his soul and his life. 

Which lines show that the poet has suffered his hardships bravely?.

The lines that show that the poet has suffered his hardships bravely are :

  • I thank whatever gods may be
  • For my unconquerable soul. 
  • In the fell clutch of circumstance
  • I have neither winced nor cried aloud.
  • Under the bludgeoning of chance
  • My head is bloody but unbowed. 

What is meant by ‘the place of wrath and tears’?

‘The place of wrath and tears’ means the place of anger and sadness. That is, the world where we live. 

‘Under the bludgeonings of chance’. Pick out and explain the figure of speech from this line.

Personification – Chance (fate) is personified. It is said to be beating the poet violently with a club. 

Paragraph Format : 

The poem ‘Invictus’ is by William Ernest Henley. The Rhyme Scheme of the poem is abab. One example of a Figure of Speech is Personification: ‘In the fell clutch of circumstance’, ‘Circumstance’ is personified. It is said to be clutching wickedly. 

‘Invictus’ is a powerful poem. It is all about showing courage in the face of death, and of the will to survive with dignity in the face of severe hardships. The poet stresses that he alone is responsible for his actions, and though he has been battered by fate, he has not been conquered.

2.2 A True Story of Sea Turtles

 Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming up

It is our world, too!

Observe the following photographs. What is common among all these animals? They are all endangered species. They are likely to die out completely, one of the reasons being human activity in their habitat. If these animals could think and Guess what the following symbolize and match the pairs :

  • a tall mountain – strength/firmness
  • a dark night – deep distress
  • a rose – beauty
  • sunrise – hope
  • a flying bird –   freedom
  • thunder – anger

Form groups of 5 – 8. Prepare short autobiographical speeches for each of these animals (10 – 15 lines). Use the following points:

How the animal lives – It’s the only way he/she can.
How he interacts with nature and other animals.
How humans interact with that species – whether it is fair, necessarily  or desirable, etc.
The possible ill effects of the way human beings treat the animals, for the whole living world.
The animal getting ready to bid farewell to this world.
Form groups of 5 – 8. Prepare short autobiographical speeches for each of these endangered animals (10 – 15 lines). Use the points given on page 30 of the textbook.
(Note: A complete autobiographical speech is given only for (c). Students may write the others based on the given points.)
Tiger:
(Points: lives in tropical, evergreen forests – eats different types of prey, mostly other large mammals – humans hunt them for their skin and destroy their habitats – if extinct, other species will run wild – ecosystem damaged.)

Monkey:
(Points: proper name rhesus macaque – herbivorous – eats fruits, seeds, roots, . bark, cereals, etc. – found mostly in Asia – friendly and comes close to human habitations – in demand for research programmes because close to humans in behaviour – intelligent – fear of diseases being spread through these animals – important part of ecosystem.)

Indian wild dog or the Dhole:

Hi there! You may wonder who I am, for I am not as popular as some of the other animals. I am called ‘dhole’, or the red wolf, or the Indian wild dog. I live only in Asia, in the mountainous regions, generally in the forested areas.

I am a very social animal and live together with my whole family. I am reddish in colour, and my home is a ‘den’. I am carnivorous, and mostly hunt during the day. My food is deer, monkeys, buffaloes, etc. I compete with tigers and leopards for food. I am endangered today because of the loss of the habitat in which I live and lack of food.

There is severe competition from other species too. I am also hunted for fun by humans. Unfortunately, many diseases have been transferred to me from domestic dogs, and many of my family members are dying due to these diseases. Today, there are less than 2,500 of us adults left. I ask you for your help in my conservation. Thank you.

Whale:
(Points: marine animal – mammal – largest animal on earth – extinction due to overfishing, pollution, etc. – help regulate the flow of food – ensure that certain species do not overpopulate the ocean and threaten others.)

Hold a classroom discussion on the following topics and later on, expand the themes on your own. (10 – 15 lines)

Why human beings need to use more and more natural resources?
Should we conserve only the most beautiful and most useful things in nature?
What is ‘beautiful’ or ‘useful’? Who has the right to decide that?

Should we conserve only the most beautiful and most useful things in nature?
(Points: what is beautiful to one may be dangerous to others – example: leopards seem beautiful to city dwellers but are dangerous to villagers – many animals like pollinating insects, bees, slugs – not beautiful but useful – nothing useless – every animal and plant contributes to the ecosystem in some way or the other – nothing should be allowed to become extinct.)

What is ‘beautiful’ or ‘useful’? Who has the right to decide that?
(Points: no one is judge of what is useful and what is beautiful – no one has the right to decide that – beauty lies in the eyes of beholder – what is beautiful to one may be dangerous to others – we: must live in such a way so as to conserve as much flora and fauna as possible.)

English Workshop:

Form groups. Discuss the first two paragraphs. Try to present their content in the form of a series of conversations among the volunteers and the villagers.

Conversation between volunteers:

Volunteer Look, what are these things here? They look like egg shells! Where have they come from?
Vol. Eggshells? Where? Oh, yes, there they are. Deep in that pit in the sand!
Vol. I have never seen so many egg shells around here before!
Vol. It’s certainly unusual. Let’s ask these villagers about it.
Vol.I just asked. They say that they are turtle egg shells.
Vol. But we have never come across any turtle eggs in all our walks along the beaches of this region.
Vol. I wonder how this is possible.
Vol. I made some more enquiries. This beach has been sealed to the public for nearly one month.
Vol. Why?
Vol. To prevent the smuggling of silver bricks, it seems.
Vol. That means that these eggs are seen only after the beach has been sealed to the public,
Vol. Oh, Oh. Do you know what that implies?
Conversation between the volunteers and the villagers:

Villager Why have you brought us here ?
Volunteer We wanted to ask you about these egg shells. What are they?
Vill. These are turtle egg shells, sir.
Vol. We have never seen them before, in all our walks along the Konkan coast.
Vill. Well, sir, this beach has been sealed to the public since the past month to prevent smuggling activities.
Vol. Turtle eggs? But turtles are a protected species.
(Students may continue the conversation of your own.)

Prepare a short note on sea turtles with the help of the information given in the passage.

There are seven types of sea turtles in the world, five of which are found in India. The Olive Ridley turtles nest along the entire coastline of Maharashtra. Green turtles and Hawkbills have also been found. When the female turtle reaches maturity at about the age of fifteen years, she returns to the shore to lay her eggs at the same place where she was born. The female comes to the shore just to make a nest in the sand and lay her eggs and immediately returns to the sea. She does not return to the nest after that.

The eggs hatch after a period of 40-50 days, using natural heat. Innumerable dangers await the eggs on the land and the hatchlings in the deep sea, and they have to face them all on their own. Their survival rate is therefore very low. Turtles perform an important function – they keep the sea clean. Thus they occupy an important place in marine ecology.

Prepare a poster to illustrate how the turtle eggs were/are protected. Include the following in the poster.

Some pictures of sea turtles and their habitat
Information about turtle nests and eggs
A picture and information about a ‘protected nest’
Appeal to the public to spread awareness about their conservation
Some data (figures) regarding the achievements so far
Prepare a poster to illustrate how the turtle eggs were/are protected. Include the following in the poster.

Some pictures of sea turtles and their habitat
Information about turtle nests and eggs
A picture and information about a ‘protected nest’
Appeal to the public to spread awareness about their conservation
Some data (figures) regarding the achievements so far

Prepare a simple brochure regarding the ‘homestay’ facilities made available in the villages. Form groups and discuss the points you will use in the brochure. Remember to include the precautions that tourists have to take at the site, in your brochure.

Prepare a simple brochure regarding the ‘homestay’ facilities made available in the villages. Form groups and discuss the points you will use in the brochure. Remember to include the precautions that tourists have to take at the site, in your brochure.

(An example is given below.)
Welcome to: Kasav Mahotsav
Homestay facilities: ‘Nisarg’ Homestay

Close to the beach
SpacIous arid clean rooms
Private toilets for every room
Delicious, fresh, home-cooked food
Green surroundings
A home away from home!

Additional facilities:

24-hour wifi
tour guides

boat ride in the sea
Precautions:

No flash to be used while photographing the hatchlings
Restricted entry into the sea
Barricades and rules to be respected
Contact us on:
Mobile: 98194 xxxxx
[email protected]

Explain the idea of conservation of Nature through Livelihood’ briefly, using the example given here.

Nature has to be conserved and protected. If, while doing this, people are also provided with employment, it becomes sustainable. In Velas village, tourists came in hordes to see the turtle hatchlings. These tourists were given food and accommodation by the villagers. This brought in business and money for them. However, in order to earn that money, it was important to protect the hatchlings, which the tourists came to see. Therefore, they took pains to protect the turtles, hence conserving this bit of nature. This is the idea of ‘Conservation of Nature through Livelihood’

Prepare bullet point presentations on the following:

Scope for tourism in your locality
Prudent utilization of natural resources.
(Students may complete this activity in the computer labs.

Underline the main clause in the following sentences.

There are a few people in every village who keep combing the beach in the early hours of the morning, throughout the year.
When the female turtle comes onshore to nest and to lay eggs, she leaves behind a trail just like a track of wheels on the sand.
The egg hunters follow this trail right up to the nest which is about half a meter deep.

Read: ‘Last Chance to See’ by Douglas Adams and Mark Carwardin

Complete the following statements:
(The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The volunteers were surveying the white-bellied sea-eagles in the summer that year.

The volunteers had never come across turtle eggs in their walks in all the year

The stolen turtle eggs are either eaten or sold in the market.

Why have these turtles been protected in India?

The eggs of the turtles are stolen by egg hunters and then either eaten or sold in the market. If a turtle is spotted while it is still laying eggs, it is killed and eaten after it has finished laying the eggs. The turtles are an important part of the marine food chain. Hence they have been protected in India.

Match the following

AB
shallow – pits
unusual – occurrence
ruthless – practice
silver –  bricks

Personal Response:

Do you think that we, in India, look after and nurture the flora and fauna around us?

No, we don’t. People poach endangered species for the money they can earn from the skin, furs, etc. Trees are routinely cut down for agriculture, roads, buildings, and so on. In cities, trees are pruned very haphazardly and concrete is often poured round their roots. Domestic animals roam around the streets eating from garbage dumps. The list is endless. I think that people should be educated to respect nature

State whether the following statements are Right or Wrong:

Turtles are a protected species in India. Right
Many of the elderly villagers had seen hatchlings.

 Wrong
In the first year, the volunteers protected 500 nests. 

Wrong
The volunteers had no experience regarding sea turtles. 

Right

Why were the people asked to look for the eggs or nests in the morning?

Sea turtles usually come ashore at night to lay eggs. The people who were asked to .look for the eggs or nests in the morning, carefully removed the eggs from the nest and buried them in a similar pit. This new pit was protected with wire fencing to prevent thefts.

The elderly persons had seen the hatchlings for the first time. What does it indicate?
This indicates that the theft of turtle eggs was so common that no eggs had been allowed to hatch for many years in the past.

Form adverbs from the following words

secret – secretly
serious – seriously
special – specially
careful – carefully.

Rewrite the following sentence using ‘never’:

It was for the first time that they had seen the hatchlings rushing to the sea.

They had never before seen the hatchlings rushing to the sea.

Frame a Wh-question to get the underlined part as the answer:

They had to watch over the protected nest to prevent thefts.

Why did they have to watch over the protected nest?

Personal Response:

“Have you seen any turtles? If so, where? If not, would you like to see?

I have seen turtles only at the zoo, in pictures and on TV. I am very fond of animals and I would certainly like to see turtles in their natural habitat. I would love to see the hatchlings rushing out to meet the sea.

Choose the correct alternatives:

The Olive Ridley turtles nest along
the hilly areas of Maharashtra
the coastline of Maharashtra
the Interiors of Maharashtra

the coastline of Maharashtra

The turtles reach maturity at the age of about
one or two years
40-50 days
15 years

15 years

The turtle eggs hatch after
40-50 days
five to seven days
15 days

40-50 days

ProtectIon to the turtle was offered In – villages.
80
40-50
all

80

Why was it necessary to undertake turtle protection on a large scale?

Turtles perform an important function-they keep the sea clean. Thus, they occupy an important place in marine ecology. However, there are innumerable dangers awaiting the turtles, their eggs and the young hatchlings. The survival rate of the hatchlings is as low as just one or two turtles out of a thousand. Considering all these factors, it was necessary to undertake their protection on a large scale.

Fill in the blanks using the phrases given in the brackets:

(The answers are given directly and underlined.)
(to the shore, after a period of, on their own, to spread the message)

It is necessary to spread the message of peace all over the world.

You can withdraw your money after a period of three years

The boat returned to the shore after a long time.

Students must learn to do their homework on their own

Why were those who had stolen the eggs earlier, Involved In the work of protection? Give at least two reasons.

The first reason is that those who had stolen the eggs earlier, knew the exact details of where and I when the turtles would lay their eggs. The second reason was to give them a sense of responsibility, so ‘ that they would not continue to steal the eggs.

Name the following :

(The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The Turtle festival: Kasav Mahotsava

Accommodation for tourists in the homes of villagers: Homestay

A sum of money saved for the protection of turtles: Turtle Protection Fund

The organization that took the initiative to save turtles: Sahyadri Nisarg Mitra

What do the ‘homestay’ families do?

The ‘homestay’ families provide accommodation to the tourists.

Why was the project entrusted to the local people?

The project was entrusted to the local people because it was believed that it is only the local villagers who can offer excellent protection to the local species.

Match the meanings of the following expressions with reference to the passage :

novel concept –  new idea

unique spectacle –  unusual sight

came forward –  volunteer

become sustainable – possible to be maintained

Activity-based on Contextual Grammar

Rewrite using the noun form of the underlined words

The tourists were accommodated in the homes of the village

We are happy to see the project running smoothly.

Answers-

The tourists were given (provided) accommodation in the homes of the villager

It gives us happiness to see the project running smoothly

Make a meaningful sentence using the following phrase

throughout the year

Nowadays, mangoes are available throughout the year

Spot the error and correct the sentence

Turtles nests along the entire coastline of our state

Turtles nest along the entire coastline of our state.

Punctuate the following

as soon as the eggs are laid it is caught and then killed and eate

As soon as the eggs are laid, it is caught and then killed and eaten.

Pick out the infinitive in the following sentences

They had to prevent thefts

Infinitive – to prevent.

Identify the type of sentence

We had never come across turtle eggs in our walks

Assertive sentence

Find out two hidden words from the word ‘organisation’

organization- organ, grain, (rain, nation)

Find a verb from the lesson that forms its past and present participles by doubling the last letter

spot – spotted, spotting

Arrange the words in alphabetical orders

turtle, trail, ruthless, response

response, ruthless, trail, turtle

A comprehensive booklet and a short film was prepared to spread the message

(Change the voice beginning ‘We……’

We prepared a comprehensive booklet and a short film to spread the message.

Use the word ‘leaves’ in two separate sentences, the word having different meanings (homographs)

The leaves of many trees turn yellow in autumn

A smart thief never leaves any clues behind.

They gave ten percent of their income from ‘homestay’ for the Turtle Protection Fun

(Use the future continuous form of the verb.

They will be giving ten percent of their income from ‘homestay’ for the Turtle Protection Fund

Some of the elderly villagers confessed that it was the first time that they had seen the hatchlings rushing to the sea

(Rewrite indirect speech.)

“It is the first time we have seen the hatchlings rushing to the sea,” confessed some of the elderly villagers.

Challenging Activities

Use the word ‘harm’ as a noun and a verb in two separate sentence

“You will come to no harm if you obey the rules,” said the teacher, (noun

If we harm the environment, we will suffer for it. (verb)

A Turtle Friends Club was established in each village. (Rewrite using a modal auxiliary for advice

A Turtle Friends Club should be established in each village

2.3 Somebody’s Mother

 Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming up : 

Read the following proverb that has a biblical reference.

‘Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.’ Now find at least 5 other proverbs/axioms/quotations which convey the same message. Search the internet/dictionary of proverbs.

……………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………. 

They that sow the wind shall reap the whirlwind.

Life is an echo – what you send out comes back.

As you sow, so shall you reap.

Love begets love.

Love your neighbour like yourself. 

Study the following sets of words :

Set A – pleased, happy, joyful, ecstatic

Set B – letter, word, sentence, paragraph

Note: The words in these sets are arranged in an ascending order, each word showing a higher degree than the previous one. Now rearrange the following groups of words in the ascending order. 

Arrange the following groups of words in the ascending order : (The answer is given directly.) 

Prepare similar word chains using the following ideas : (The answer is given directly and underlined.) 

English Workshop: 

Pick out lines from the poem that help create images of the following in our mind and write them in the table. 

Old Woman The Street School Boys

The woman was old and ragged and grey And bent with the chill of a winter’s day The streets were white with a recent snow Down the street with laughter and shout

At the crowded crossing she waited long, Jostled aside by the careless throng  At the crowded crossing she waited long came happy boys, like a flock of sheep,

Her aged hand on his strong young arm She placed, and so without hurt or harm He guided the tremblIng feet along came happy boys, like a flock of sheep, Hailing the snow piled high and deep Past the woman so old and grey, Hastened the children on their way

Write at least 5 rhymes from the poem

Rhymes: troop – group, low – go, arm – harm, along – strong, went – content.

Rhymes: gray – day, snow – slow, long – throng, by – eye, shout – out.

Give, in your own words, TWO reasons for each of the following :

The woman was reluctant to cross the street by herself because … 

the road was slippery because of the snow.

there was heavy traffic of horse carriages on the road.

The school boys were in a happy mood.

school was over for the day.

the snow was piled high on the road.

One of the schoolboys helped the old woman cross the street.

she was old and afraid to cross on her own

he hoped someone, sometime, may lend a hand to his own mother when he was not around. 

We must help those who are in need because … 

we too may need help one day.

we must show compassion to those in need.

Think and write In 5-6 lines, why most of the people on a road/street Ignore those In need of help. What about you? Write about your feelings after you have helped! not helped, when needed.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 

People, especially in the larger cities and towns, are always in a hurry to reach their place of work or their home. Hence they don’t have time to spare to help strangers. Some people may be purely selfish and don’t have compassion for others. 

I always try to help people who genuinely need help. Once I lent a hand to an old man to get onto a bus. He was very grateful and thanked me. I felt very good about it. 

I did not help a woman who had slipped and fallen down on the footpath during the monsoon. I just walked past her, ignoring her. I felt very guilty about it later. I wondered how I would feel if I had been in her place and had not got any help. 

Read the poem: ‘Home they brought her warrior dead’ by Alfred Lord Tennyson 

Simple Factual Activity : 

Write whether the following statements are True or False : 

The woman’s feet were slow because of the snow. False

The people around her did not bother about her. True

The schoolboys were happy. True

A boy came immediately to help the old woman. False

Guess the following, using references from the poem : 

The setting-the region, the locality.

The setting is a busy street, covered with a layer of fresh snow. The area is very crowded and there is a school nearby. 

The time – the time of the year and the day.

It is winter. The time of the day is probably late afternoon or early evening. 

Activities based on Poetic Devices : 

From the extract, pick out and explain an example of: 

Simile –

‘Came happy boys, like a flock of sheep.’ The happy boys have been directly compared to a flock of sheep. 

Alliteration –

‘Should trample her down in the slippery street.’ Repetition of the sound of ‘s’ at the beginning of the words. 

Simple Factual Activity : 

Choose the correct alternative for each statement : 

The person who helped the old lady was :

hurt and harmed

kind and compassionate

slow and proud

dear and Jar away

kind and compassionate 

The old lady crossed the road :

but fell down on the way

all by herself

with a merry troop

without hurt or harm

without hurt or harm 

The old lady was helped by :

a group of young boys

a proud and nobleman

a strong and young boy

somebody’s mother

a strong and young boy 

The old lady at night :

asked for blessings for the young boy

asked for a mother for the young boy

helped the young boy’s mother

helped somebody’s mother

asked for blessings for the young boy 

Answer the following : 

Was the old lady grateful to the young boy who had helped her? How do you know?

Yes, the old lady was grateful to the young boy who had helped her. We know this because that night, in her home, she prayed to God to be kind to him. 

Activities based on Poetic Devices : 

From the extract, pick out and explain an example of: 

Alliteration –

‘His young heart happy and well-content.’ Repetition of the sound of ‘h’ at the beginning of the words. 

Inversion –

‘Then back again to his friends he went.’ The correct prose order is : He then went back again to his friends. 

Paragraph Format: 

The poem ‘Somebody’s Mother’ is by Mary Dow Brine. The Rhyme Scheme of stanzas 3 and 6 is aabbcc. All the other stanzas have the rhyme scheme aabb. A Figure of Speech is Inversion: ‘At the crowded crossing she waited long.’ The correct prose order is She waited long at the crowded crossing. Other figures of speech are Simile and Alliteration. 

The poem describes an incident in which a young boy helps a frightened old lady to cross the street when she was being ignored by everyone else. He tells his young friends that he hopes that when his own mother is old and needs help, someone will help her too if he is not at hand.

2.4 The Fall of Troy

 Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming up: 

Building a Story :

Form groups of eight. The group leader prepares slips of paper for each of the seven points given below and distributes them among the others. The group sits in a circle, taking their seats according to the number on the slip they have. Then each one completes the sentence on his/her slip without sharing it with the others. The group leader collects the slips and reads all the sentences aloud as one continuous passage. Does the story make sense? The group then works on the story to make it more meaningful and interesting. 

This game may be played again, changing the groups, to form new stories. 

Once there was a ……………………….

Who lived in a ……………………….

He/She ate ……………………….

She/He went ……………………….

There she/he saw ……………………….

She/He was …………………………

That is why ………………………. 

Answers-

Once there was a beautiful princess.

Who lived in a dirty old shoe in a park.

He/She ate nails and screws and paper.

She/He went on a plane to the Arctic Circle.

There she/he saw green mountains, lush forests and thundering waterfalls.

She/He was very happy to go to Mars in the spaceship.

That is why the doctor gave me the bitter medicine. 

The sentences as one continuous passage : 

Once there was a beautiful princess who lived in a dirty old shoe in a park. She/He ate nails and screws and paper. She went on a plane to the Arctic Circle. There she saw green mountains, lush forests and thundering waterfalls. She was very happy to go to Mars in the spaceship. That is why the doctor gave me the bitter medicine. 

The sentences read as one continuous passage do not make sense. However, if we make changes in the story, the passage will make sense. 

Once there was a beautiful princess.

Who lived in a beautiful palace in a large forest.

She ate only fresh fruits, vegetables and salads for every meal.

She went on a voyage to the Arctic Circle.

There she saw frozen seas, ice bergs and a variety of sea animals.

She was thrilled to see so many different things, which she had never seen before.

That is why she decided to visit a new place every year.

When we put these sentences given above as a continuous passage, they form a small and sensible story.

(Students can play the game again, changing the groups, to form new stories. 

Interviews: 

Why? : Form groups of five. Choose a familiar character from any one of the epics you know. One person from the group plays the role of that character. Others in the group frame questions related to that character’s life. The condition is that all the questions should begin with ‘Why …?‘. They interview the character using these ‘Why -?‘ questions. Practise and present the interview in the classroom.

How? : Follow the above procedure. Now all questions should begin with ‘How -?‘

Prepare a short script of your interviews. 

Why?

Form groups of five. Choose a familiar character from any one of the epics you know. One person from the group plays the role of that character. Others in the group frame questions related to that character’s life. The condition is that all the questions should begin with a ‘Why…’? They interview the character using these ‘Why?’ questions. Practice and present the interview in the classroom.

Example: Questions for Lord Rama. Epic: Ramayan

Why did you marry Sita?

Why did your father ask you to leave the kingdom?

Why did your stepmother want you to leave the kingdom?

Why did Lakshman accompany you to the forest?

Why did Lakshman leave Sita alone in the hut?

How? : Follow the above procedure. Now all questions should begin with ‘How -?‘

Example :

How did you marry Sita?

How many brothers did you have?

How did your stepmother make you leave the kingdom?

How did Ravana trick Sita?

How did Hanuman help you?

A short script of the interviews:

Example : 

Why did your father ask you to leave the kingdom?

My father fulfilled my stepmother Kaikeyi’s wish and banished me from Ayodhya. 

Why did your stepmother want you to leave the kingdom?

My stepmother Kaikeyi wanted her son Bharat to become the king. This would not have been possible if I had been in Ayodhya. Hence she wanted me to leave the kingdom. 

Why did Lakshman accompany you to the forest?

Lakshman loved me and wanted to ensure my safety in the forest. Hence he accompanied me to the forest. 

Part – I 

English Workshop: 

Read the passage and name the following. 

He composed the Illiad and Odyssey: ……………….

He persuaded Helen to elope wjth him: ……………….

She was wife of the King Menelaus: ……………….

He led the defence of Troy for nthe years: ……………….

He was killed by a poisoned arrow that entered his heel: ………………. 

Answers-

He composed The Iliad and – The Odyssey Homer

He persuaded Helen to elope with him. Paris

She was the wife of King Menelaus. Helen

He led the defense of Troy for nine years Hector

He was killed by a poisoned arrow that entered his heel. Achilles 

Find antonyms of the following from the passage.

barren × ……………..

offended × ……………..

cowardly × ……………..

peace × ……………..

surrender × ……………..

Exposed × ……………..

defenceless × …………….. 

Answers-

barren × fertile

offended × pleased

cowardly × brave

peace × war

surrender × attack

exposed × protected.

defenceless × safe. 

From other sources find synonyms of the following words used in the story.

great (hero)

beautiful (woman)

fight (verb)

rich (city)

safe

strong (city)

brave 

Answers-

great – gallant (hero)

beautiful – entrancing (woman).

fight – attack (verb)

rich – prosperous (city)

safe – sheltered.

strong – well-protected (city)

brave – courageous. 

Correct the following sentences using facts from the passage.

Troy traded in cattle and grass, with other cities.

During war, Trojans jumped over the fort gates to fight die enemy.

Helen eloped with Menelaus.

Troy was attacked because it was a strong. rich city.

The Greek armies and heroes always defeated the Trojans.

Both the enemies were eager to continue fighting.

The great heroes avoided one another.

Achilles was killed by an arrow that pierced his heart. 

Answers-

Troy traded in goods and grain with other cities.

During the war, Trojans came out of the open fort gates to fight the enemy.

Helen eloped with Paris.

Troy was attacked because its Prince Paris had! persuaded Helen, the wife of a Greek king Menelaus, to elope with him.

Sometimes the Trojans seemed to have the better of the fight and sometimes the Greeks.

The Trojans were tired of being shut up in their city and the Greeks were longing to see their homes again.

Sometimes there were single fights, between two great heroes.

Achilles was killed by an arrow that pierced his heel. 

State the counter-action for the following actions.

Action Counter-action

Helen eloped with Paris.Greece declared war against the Troy.

The Greeks sailed to Troy and attacked it.The Trojans fought hard and the siege continued for ten years.

Hector was killed by Achilles.Achilles himself was killed later by a poisoned arrow.

The siege continued for ten long years.The Trojans fought hard and the fighting went on daily.

From either of our two Indian epics, find out which battle/war lasted the longest? Write down about its cause, the enemy armies, its heroes, its duration and the final outcome. 

Complete the following sentences with reference to the passage.

Epics are long poems that ………………… .

They may be composed and sung or recited for many years before …………….. .

Nobody knows for certain who ………………………….. .

It is believed that ……………. Homer, who ………….. and who ……………… to all who ……………. .

At the back rose the high peak of Mount Ida, from which ………….. .

Answer:

Epics are long poems that relate the deeds of a great national hero or a great national war.

They may be composed and sung or recited for many years before they are actually written down.

Nobody knows for certain who the author of these early epics is.

It is believed that The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed and recited by a blind poet named Homer, who lived about 900 BCE and who wandered from one Greek city or village to another, singing his poems to all who would receive him in their homes.

At the back rose the high peak of Mount Ida, from which flowed many rivers and streams. 

Underline the clauses in the above sentences and also the words that link or connect the clauses. 

Epics are  poems that relate the deed of a great national hero or a great national war.

Epics are long poems – Clause

that relate the deed of a great national hero or a great national war – Clause 

They may be composed and sung or recited for many years before they are actually written down.

They may be composed – Clause (they may be)

sung – Clause (they may be)

recited for many years – Clause

before they are actually written down – Clause 

Nobody knows for certain who the author of these early epics is.

Nobody knows for certain – Clause

who the author of these early epics is – Clause 

It is believed that The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed and recited by a blind poet named Homer, who lived about 900 BCE and who wandered from one Greek city or village to another, singing his poems to all who would receive him in their homes.

It is believed – Clause

that The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed – Clause

(that The Iliad and The Odyssey were)

recited by a blind poet named Homer – Clause

who lived about 900 BCE – Clause 

At the back rose the high peak of Mount Ida, from which flowed many rivers and streams.

At the back rose the high peak of Mount Ida – Clause

from which flowed many rivers and streams – Clause 

Part – II 

Find and write the Greek and Trojan names used in the story (Part I and II).

List all the words related to ‘war’ from both parts of the story. 

Note the following constructions carefully and then use them to express your ideas: 

Put the following events in the order in which they took place. Number them accordingly. 

The Trojans found a Greek man under the big wooden horse. [ ]

They broke down part of the wall and brought the horse in. [ ]

The cunning Odysseus thought of a plan. [ ]

The Greeks burnt their tents and sailed away. [ ]

Troy was burnt down. [ ]

The Greeks built a big wooden horse. [ ]

The great heroes hid inside the horse. [ ]

The priest warned the Trojans not to break the wall. [ ]

The Trojans were happy to see the Greek ships go. [ ]

The Trojans slept soundly. [ ]

The Greeks came out of the horse and opened the gates. [ ]

The Greek army entered the city. [ ]

Answers-

The Trojans found a Greek man under the big wooden horse. 

They broke down part of the wall and brought the horse in. 

The cunning Odysseus thought of a plan.

The Greeks burnt their tents and sailed away. 

Troy was burnt down. 

The Greeks built a big wooden horse. 

The great heroes hid inside the horse. 

The priest warned the Trojans not to break the wall. 

The Trojans were happy to see the Greek ships go. 

The Trojans slept soundly. 

The Greeks came out of the horse and opened the gates. 

The Greek army entered the city. 

Form pairs. Imagine you are a pair of Trojans and you have come to know about Odysseus’s plan. Make a counter plan to defeat the Greeks. Write down your plan as you would explain it to your fellow Trojans.

Identify one example of a main clause and one example of a dependent clause from page 46. (Read the entry regarding clause in the Language Study pages.) 

Many of the Trojans were killed before they could put on their armour.

Many of the Trojans were killed – Main Clause before they could put on their armour – Dependent Clause

Be a writer.

Now read the beginning and end of a sci-fi story given below and complete the story using your imagination.

‘The Magic Glasses’

After ten years of diligent experimenting on ‘light’, Jayant, a brilliant scientist, created a pair of eye-glasses that would enable him to see through all opaque objects, doors, walls, metal structures, etc. .

On Monday, he put on his ‘magic’ glasses and stepped into the busy street outside … 

Everything seemed normal – the traffic, the crowds, etc. Suddenly, Jayant tripped over something and he looked down. It was the metal covering of a manhole. As he looked, he saw a strange sight. There were three little children below, deep under the footpath! How was that possible? Why was no one helping them? They were crying and wailing, sitting in the mess inside the drain. He looked up, and then realized that he had seen them because of his magic eye-glasses. 

“Come on, help!” he shouted. “There are children trapped under this footpath, inside this drain!”

Several people stopped. “How do you know?” asked a non-believer.

“What is going on here?” asked an officious- looking policeman.

“Don’t talk – just help!” snapped Jayant, trying to prise open the manhole cover. It was heavy, and several good Samaritans stepped forward to help. Within a few moments, the heavy lid was in their hands.

Everyone peered into the dark, gloomy and smelly drain. They could hear the faint sounds of crying. “I’m going down,” said Jayant. “Those little ones will not be able to bear the poisonous gases much longer.”

With the help of the cooperative by-standers, Jayant went down into the manhole and rescued the little kids – all of whom were below the age of five. Everyone clapped when he came out, dirty and smelly, with the three half-conscious kids.

And so, Jayant received the ‘State Award for Brave Citizens’. ………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . 

Read the following and observe the use of tenses.

‘Last week I witnessed a strange accident. Let ¡ne tell you about it. The signal flashes green. Vehicles start from the opposite direction. They ¡nove fast. Suddenly a speeding motorcyclist tries to cut across, from the wrong side. He is about to collide with a loaded truck. He applies the brakes. He falls and slides out with his bike from under the truck. He comes out unscathed on the other side.’ When an event, which has occured in the past, is narrated in the Present Tense to create a dramatic effect its Tense is called the ‘Dramatic Present Tense’ Now try to relate Jayant s sci-fI story, in brief, in the dramatic past tense.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Jayant wears his magic glasses and steps into the street. He trips over a manhole and looks down. What! Are there three little kids trapped inside the drain under the footpath? Jayant looks around for help, but there are non – believers around him. He tries to prise open the manhole cover. Suddenly, willing hands help him. 

The cover is open, and they hear the sounds of children crying. Jayant bravely low

Jayant wears his magic glasses and steps into the street. He trips over a manhole and looks down. What! Are there three little kids trapped inside the drain under the footpath? Jayant looks around for help, but there are non – believers around him. He tries to prise open the manhole cover. Suddenly, willing hands help him. 

The cover is open, and they hear the sounds of children crying. Jayant bravely lowers himself down the dirty drain. He soon rescues the three kids trapped inside. As he hands over the kids to the policeman, the people around clap for him. He is a hero. Jayant later receives the ‘State Award for Brave Citizens’. 

Read the following passages carefully and complete the activities : 

Simple Factual Activity : 

Name the following :

(The answers are given directly and underlined.) 

The language of The Iliad and The Odyssey : Ancient Greek

The language of The Mahabharata : Sanskrit

The most beautiful woman in the world : Helen of Troy.

Complete the following sentences :

(The answers are given directly and underlined.) 

Odysseus thought of a plan to obtain victory.

Troy was taken, not by force but by a trick.

Two great heroes, Menelaus and Odysseus, entered the horse.

Only one man was left behind to persuade the Trojans to drag the horse into their city. 

Write the correct number against the sentences in the order in which it happened 

They found a Greek with his hands tied together. 

Let us make a hole in the wall and drag the horse in. 

They saw the huge, wooden horse. 

The Greek told them his tale. 

How were epics transmitted from generation to generation?

Epics were transmitted from generation to generation through songs and recitals for many years before they were actually written down. 

Why is Homer honoured with the title ‘Father of European Poetry?’

It is believed that the two great epics of European literature, The Iliad and The Odyssey, were composed and recited by Homer. Hence he has been honoured with the title ‘Father of European Poetry’. 

How did Odysseus plan to defeat the Trojans ?

Odysseus advised the Greeks to build a great wooden horse, big enough to hold men inside it. Some of their best fighters would hide inside the horse. Then they would burn their tents and pretend to sail away in their ships. But instead of sailing away, they would return at midnight. One man would be left behind with the horse to persuade the Trojans to drag the horse into their city. 

After the horse with the soldiers had entered the city, at the appropriate time, the door in the horse would be opened and the soldiers hiding inside would attack Troy. The gates would be opened to allow the remaining Greek soldiers from the ships into the city. The combined force of the Greeks would defeat the Trojans and they would destroy the city of Troy. 

What was the reason for Troy to rejoice and celebrate?

The Trojans rejoiced and celebrated because after ten long years, the siege was finally over. The tents of the Greeks had been burnt. The shore was deserted. The Greek ships had all gone. The Trojans could go out on the plain and move around as they pleased. 

Activities based on Vocabulary : 

Find the synonyms of the following words used in the story :

famous

famous – well-known 

Write the adjective forms of the following words : 

hospitality

hero

history

poem

Answer: 

hospitality – hospitable

hero – heroic

history – historical

poem – poetic. 

Write from the passage words that sound the same (homophones) as the following : 

grate

sale

would

site 

Answers-

great

sail

wood

sight.

Use the phrase ‘enough to’ in your own sentence :

Our school auditorium was big enough to hold a grand function.

Give one word from the passage for : 

great surprise

pulled out forcibly 

great surprise – astonishment

pulled out forcibly – dragged 

Use these phrases in your own sentences :

(Please refer to textbook page 47 for examples.) 

tired of

afraid of

too … to … 

We were tired of the long wait for the bus.

The children were afraid of the commotion.

The bed was too big to be kept in the room.

Use the phrases in your own sentences : 

so … that

as soon as

all that day

in order to 

The teenagers were so excited that it was difficult to control them.

I opened my umbrella as soon as it began to rain.

Though their mother shouted at them, the girls lazed about all that day.

We have to work hard in order to do well in life.

Activity-based on Contextual Grammar : 

Change the voice of the following sentences : 

It is believed that The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed by Homer.

Nobody knows who the author of these epics is. 

People believe that Homer composed The Iliad and The Odyssey.

It is not known who the author of these epics is.

When the Trojans are asleep, we will attack the city. (Pick out and name the clauses.)

we will attack the city – Main Clause.

When the Trojans are asleep – Subordinate Adverb Clause of Time. 

The Greek leaders decided to follow the advice of the wise Odysseus. (Frame a Wh-question to get the underlined part as the answer.)

Whose advice did the Greek leaders decide to follow? 

Rewrite the sentence using ‘no sooner than’ :

As soon as they were hidden by an island, they had lowered their sails.

No sooner were they hidden by an island, than they had lowered their sails. 

Rewrite the sentence using ‘too … to’ :

They were so excited that they paid no attention to his words.

They were too excited to pay any attention to his words. 

Personal Response :

Have you seen any of the stories mentioned in the passage in TV serials or movies?

Yes, I have seen both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata as TV serials. 

Who are considered to be the authors of the epics ‘Ramayana’ and ‘Mahabharata’ respectively?

Sage Valmiki is considered to be the author of ‘The Ramayana’ and Ved Vyasa is considered to be the author of ‘The Mahabharata’. 

What do you think about Odysseus?

I think that Odysseus was cunning and used underhand methods to win the war. The war should have been fought and won honestly, not by the use of a trick. Odysseus should not have given such advice and the Greeks should not have taken it. 

What, do you think, is needed for a city to be prosperous?

To be prosperous, a city must be well situated and have good natural resources, like water and fertile land. It should be safe from enemies. The people and the rulers should be intelligent, sensible and honest. They should also be hard-working. If all these factors are present, then a city will become prosperous. 

Do you think that wars can solve problems?

No, they cannot. Problems can be solved only by sitting around a table and sorting out the disputes. The practice of ‘an eye for an eye’ will only end up making the whole world blind. Wars kill people and destroy civilizations. 

Do you think the Greeks and Trojans were superstitious? Give reasons for your answer.

There is nothing to indicate that the Greeks were superstitious. But the Trojans were superstitious and believed that the wooden horse would bring them luck if they dragged it into their city.

How could the fall of Troy been avoided?

The fall of Troy could have been avoided if the Trojans had been wise enough to detect the ‘wooden horse plot’ hatched by the Greeks. They should also not have been stupid enough to believe the silly story told by the lone Greek. They should at least, have listened to their wise priest who had warned them that the horse could be a trick to destroy Troy. 

What do you think the Trojans should have done when they found the horse?

The Trojans should not have believed the Greeks. They should have been cautious and examined the horse minutely. They should also not have been superstitious enough to bring the horse into the city, expecting good luck. They should have heeded the words of the wise priest. 

Complex Factual Activities :

How did the location of Troy help it to grow into a very rich, prosperous city?

Troy was well situated. In front of it was the sea over which sailed the ships of Troy, carrying goods and grain. At the back rose the high peak of Mount Ida, from which flowed many rivers and streams. The valleys were well-watered and fertile. Cattle fed on the rich grass of the meadows while sheep fed on the slopes of the hills. Thus, it was well situated, both for commerce and agriculture, and grew into a rich, prosperous city. 

How were the Trojans protected during wartime?

The Trojans had built a strong wall around the city so that no enemy should attack them from the sea. There were huge gates in the wall. In times of war, the gates would be closed, and then the city was like a strong fortress, quite safe from all attack.

It was thus protected by the walls around it as well as by the hills behind. 

Was it enough to use the wooden horse to hide? What was done to make the Trojans take it inside the city?

It was not enough to use the wooden horse to hide. It had to be taken inside the city. To achieve this, a Greek, who had been left behind for this very purpose, said that the horse had been left behind as an offering to the god of the sea. It had been made very big so that the Trojans could not take it inside their city. If they did so, the luck would go to the Trojans and not to the Greeks. When they heard this, the Trojans wanted to take the wooden horse inside the city, and they broke their walls to do so.

How did the cunning Greek explain the presence of such a large wooden horse?

The cunning Greek said that the Greeks who had left were afraid of the long voyage home. They had made the horse and left it behind as an offering to the god of the sea. It had been made very big so that the Trojans could not take it inside their city. If they did so, the luck would go to the Trojans and not to the Greeks.

What was the cause of the ten-year-old war between the Greeks and the Trojans?

Paris, a prince of Troy, had persuaded Helen, wife of a Greek King called Menelaus, to elope j with him. He had brought her to Troy. The Greeks wanted to take revenge on Troy for the wrong done to Menelaus. This was the cause of the ten-year-old war between the Greeks and the Trojans. 

What reckless, thoughtless step did the Trojans take?

The reckless/thoughtless step that the Trojans took was to break down part of their wall and drag the wooden horse into the city. They also celebrated and slept soundly. 

How did the Greeks enter the city of Troy?

When the cunning Greek who had been left behind saw the Greek fleet returning to the shores of Troy, he crept to the wooden horse and gave the signal. The side of the horse opened, and the Greeks who were inside climbed out and opened the gates. * The whole Greek army entered the city.

How did the Greek ships remain hidden from Troy?

As soon as the Greek ships were hidden : by an island, they lowered their sails and dropped anchor. Thus they remained hidden from Troy. 

Activities based on Contextual Grammar : 

Round their city the Trojans had built a strong wall. (Pick out the verb and state its tense.)

had built – past perfect tense. 

The wall was so broad that people could stand on it. (Pick out the modal auxiliary and state what it indicates.)

could – indicates ability. 

Pick out the clauses from the following sentence and state their type :

He spoke and told them this false tale.

He spoke – Main Clause.

(He) told them this false tale – Main Clause. 

Rewrite the sentence using ‘which’ :

They saw on the sands the huge, wooden horse.

They saw on the sands a huge horse which

was made of wood. 

He had brought her to Troy.

(Rewrite beginning ‘She …’)

She had been brought to Troy (by him). 

The fighting went on daily, but the siege did not end. (Rewrite replacing the underlined word with its verb form.)

They fought daily, but the siege did not end. 

Write two present participles from the passage, used as adjectives. Also, write the nouns they modify: 

Present Participles used as Adjectives Nouns they modify

leaping flames

weeping women

sleeping trojan

Simple Activities :

Write two compound words of your own.

walking stick, fire engine 

Make a meaningful sentence using the phrase : ‘among the hills.

The tribal communities living among the hills are very poor. 

Spot the error and correct the sentence :

It is believe that The Iliad and The Odyssey were compose by Homer.

It is believed that The Iliad and The Odyssey were composed by Homer. 

Pick out a present participle from the given sentence :

The valleys were fertile, with corn growing in the fields.

present participle – growing. 

Identify the type of sentence :

But all the kings and heroes had declared war against the Trojans.

Assertive sentence 

Find out two hidden words from the word ‘hospitality.

hospitality – hospital, soapy, (spoil, host) 

Form a present participle in which the last letter is doubled.

hit-hitting 

Write the following words in alphabetical order.

great, grain, final, fight

fight, final, grain, great. 

Make a word chain of four more abstract nouns:

revenge →

revenge → empathy → youth → health → humility 

Write two compound words of your own.

policeman, washing machine 

Make a meaningful sentence using the phrase : ‘to follow the advice’

Our parents told us to follow the advice of the counseller. 

Spot the error and correct the sentence :

Paris himself were killed, also by a poisoned arrow.

Paris himself was killed, also by a poisoned arrow. 

Use the word ‘sleeping’ as a gerund in your own sentence :

I love sleeping. 

Identify the type of sentence, and state ; whether it is affirmative or negative :

The Greeks have gone and the walls are no longer necessary.

Assertive sentence (negative) 

Find out two hidden words from the word :

celebration

celebration – liberate, berate, (clear, brain). 

Pick out the verb from the following that forms its past participle by doubling the last letter :

mail, cut, hit, rot

rot (rotted)

Arrange these words in alphabetical order :

wooden, walls, terror, tower

terror, tower, walls, wooden 

Medium-Level Activities : 

Use the word ‘peak’ and its homophone in two separate sentences :

Mt. Everest is one peak I wish to climb.

I might take a peek at the proposed site. 

The Trojans fought hard. (Use the past perfect progressive tense of the verb.)

The Trojans had been fighting hard.

Prepare a word register for all the words related to ‘war’ from the lesson.

war-enemy, attack, fortress, soldiers, siege, battles, armies, heroes, fought, fighting, killed, taken, victory, fighters, terror, death, weapons, armour, conquerors. 

Use the word ‘sail’ and its homophone in two separate sentences :

The sea gull sat on the sail of the boat.

There is a wonderful sale at the mall this week. 

The Greeks burned their tents.

(Use the present perfect tense of the verb.)

The Greeks have burned their tents. 

“ But why did the Greeks make such a huge horse?” some of the Trojans asked.

(Rewrite using reported speech.)

Some of the Trojans asked why the Greeks had made such a huge horse. 

Prepare a word register of all the Greek and Trojan names in the story.

Greek and Trojan names – Odysseus, Menelaus, Agamemnon, Troy, King Priam, Hector, Helen, Aphrodite, Iliad, Odyssey, Achilles, Homer, Ilium, Aegean Sea, Mount Ida, Greece, Paris.

Challenging Activities :

Use the word ‘force’ as a noun and a verb in two separate sentences.

The policeman had to use a lot of force ; to open the door, (noun)

Parents should not force children into careers j that the children do not like, (verb)

The Trojans too fought hard and the siege j continued for ten long years. (Pick out the clauses j and write the type of sentence.)

The Trojans too fought hard – Coordinate Clause the siege continued for ten long years – Coordinate Clause ; Compound Sentence 

Use the words ‘rejoicing’ and ‘voyage’ in a single sentence.

There was a lot of rejoicing by the seamen on the voyage home. 

It may be a trick that will ruin us. (Pick out the modal and state its function.) 

may-possibility.

 2.5 Autumn

 Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming up:

1. What changes do you see in nature in each of the following seasons? A few sentences are given below as examples. Use these and your own to describe a season appropriately.

New grass sprouts.

We see mist in the morning.

Tender leaves shoot out on plants or trees.

There are sudden showers and

Migratory birds return. hailstorms.

The sun shines brighter than before.

Trees blossom.

What changes do you see in nature in each of the following seasons? Use the sentences given on textbook page 49 and your own to describe each season appropriately.

(a) Summer:

Migratory birds return.

The sun shines brighter than before.

Many trees blossom.

Humidity in the air increases.

(b) Winter:

We see fog in the morning.

Nights become longer and the days shorter.

There may sometimes be hail or snow in some places.

Humidity levels in the air decrease

(c) Monsoon:

New grass sprouts.

Tender leaves shoot out on plants and trees.

There are sudden showers and hailstorms.

There is the fresh smell of wet earth.

Name the six seasons according to the Indian calendar. Which of these seasons is equivalent to Autumn?

The six seasons according to the Indian calendar are :

Vasant, Grishma, Varsha, Sharad, Hemant and Shishir. Sharad Ritu is equivalent to Autumn.

What changes do we see in the life of human beings when the season changes? Write with reference to their (a) clothes (b) diet

(c) celebrations.

Answer:

(a) clothes :

Points :

summer: wear cotton clothes – loose garments – head protection like caps, turbans – open shoes – goggles – long-sleeved shirts, blouses for protection from rays of sun, etc.

winter: sweaters, mufflers, closed shoes, sometimes gloves, socks, etc.

monsoon : light synthetic clothes – rubber or plastic footwear – umbrellas or raincoats, etc.

(b) diet :

Points :

summer : more liquids-fresh fruits and juices – less spice, less oil, light diet, etc.

winter : more oil, heavy food – hot food – special types of food which provide warmth – etc.

monsoon : only cooked food – boiled water – less liquids – more foods that will give internal warmth, etc.

(c) celebrations :

Points :

summer – Many Hindu festivals like Holi, Gudi padva, holidays – harvest festivals – family get-togethers, etc.

winter – many weddings, parties – festivals like Diwali, Christmas, New Year, etc.

monsoon – many festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi, farmers’ festivals, busy season for farmers, etc.

2. Guess what is personified and fill in the gaps. Choose from the brackets.

(Sun, alarm, bird, car, wind, stars, machine)

(sun, alarm, bird, car, wind, stars, machine) (The answers are given directly.)

(a) The weary ……… was also petrol – hungry.

(b) The playful …….. whistled among the trees.

(c) The annoying ……. screamed at 5 am.

(d) The naughty …….. winked at me from above.

(e) The rising ……. stretched its arms.

(f) The cheerful …… sang as it perched on a tree.

(g) The tireless …….. hummed as it worked hard.

Answer:

(a) The weary car was also petrol-hungry.

(b) The playful wind whistled among the trees.

(c) The annoying alarm screamed at 5 a.m.

(d) The naughty stars winked at me from above.

(e) The rising sun stretched its arms.

(f) The cheerful bird sang as it perched on a tree.

(g) The tireless machine hummed as it worked hard.

1. Find three lines each, that contain images of nature in the autumn season. ..

(a) During daytime

1. ……………………..

2. ……………………..

3. ……………………..

(b) At night

1. ……………………..

2. ……………………..

3. ……………………..

(a) During daytime :

With nodding rice-stems in her hair.

And lilies in her face.

In flowers of grasses she is clad.

(b) At night :

A diadem adorns the night! Of multitudinous stars.

Her silken robe is white moonlight.

And on her face (the radiant moon).

2. Pick out words from the poem that describe the following. List them in Column ‘A’. Substitute each of those describing words with another word/phrase of the same meaning.

Answer:

A (Poetic words) B (Your own words)

1. The Autumn.   – A maiden fair, A beautiful maiden

2. Stars    – Multitudinous ,Numerous, Countless

3. Moonlight            -White  , Silvery

4. Cooing of birds.  – A bracelet’s tinkling, A musical sound

3. Find one example of each of the following from the poem :

Simile

Metaphor

Answer:

Simile – Birds greet her with their cooing glad, Like a bracelet’s tinkling sound.

Metaphor

Answer:

Metaphor – The Autumn comes, a fair maiden.

4. Write the rhyme scheme of the poem.

The rhyme scheme is ababcdcd.

5. Think and write in your own words.

Why is the maiden Autumn said to wear rice stems in her hair?

Probably the harvest of the rice crop is just over at the beginning of Autumn; hence the maiden Autumn is said to wear rice stems in her hair.

How can the tender maiden Autumn become a full grown woman? What change in nature does it imply?

When the Autumn season is just beginning, Autumn is a tender maiden, young and graceful. As the season progresses and sets in properly, she becomes a full grown, mature woman. It implies that time has passed and the season has changed.

Why do you think that birds greet the autumn season gladly?

Probably the birds enjoy the cool autumn after the hot summer. They may also get more grains and seeds to eat.

6. Compare the Indian Monsoon season to a powerful king of a prosperous kingdom. Write down a few similarities. Use them to compose a poem of your own.

(Students may attempt this on their own.)

7. Which is your favourite ‘Nature’ poem from your mother tongue? Write the poem and try to translate it into English. Your translation can be in the form of a poem or a paraphrase.

(Students may attempt this on their own.)

8. Read the poem ‘To Autumn’ by the famous poet John Keats. ‘Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness…’

What is the cooing of birds compared to?

The cooing of birds is compared to the tinkling song of a bracelet.

How does Autumn dress up at night?

At night Autumn wears a twinkling crown made of countless stars. Her robe of silk is the white moonlight, set free from the cloudy patches.

Why is Autumn called a ‘maiden fair’?

Autumn is said to be slender and graceful. She has adorned herself by having rice-stems in her hair and lilies in her face. She is dressed in flowers of grasses. Hence, she is called a ‘maiden fair’.

Appreciation:

Paragraph Format:

In the poem ‘Autumn’, the poet Kalidas has lovingly and picturesquely described the advent of the Autumn season. The original poem in Sanskrit is translated into English by Prof. A. W. Ryder.

The Rhyme Scheme is ababcdcd. A Figure of Speech that stands out is Alliteration: ‘She seems a slender maid, who soon…’. Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’. Other figures of speech are Simile and Metaphor.

The poet has compared Autumn to a slender and graceful maiden who has adorned herself in various ways.

The poem is enchanting because of the imagery and the beautiful, imaginative description of Autumn. It shows us the imagination of the poet. Autumn is personified in the entire poem and compared to a slender and graceful maiden.

 2.6 The Past in the Present

  Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming up:

Think of a play/skit which you have seen enacted on the stage and which has impressed you. Write the following details about it.

Name of the play/skit: ……………………………..

Important characters: ……………………………..

Any famous actors/actresses: ……………………………..

Theme: ……………………………..

Climax: ……………………………..

Ending: ……………………………..

Use of lights and special effects if any: ……………………………..

Use of background music and sound effects if any: ……………………………..

Use of sets: ……………………………..

The costumes, make up, etc. of the characters: ……………………………..

How well the actors present the play and behave on the stage: ……………………………..

Your own opinion about the play: ……………………………..

Answer:

1. Name of the play: Pygmalion (My Fair Lady)

2. Important characters: Professor Henry Higgins, Eliza Dolittle, Colonel Pickering, Mr. Dolittle (Eliza’s father) and Professor Higgins’ mother.

3. Any famous actors/actresses: No. The cast is made up of newcomers.

4. Theme: Bernard Shaw’s ‘Pygmalion’ centres round a bet made by Professor Henry Higgins, a well-know phonetician, with his best friend Colonel Pickering. The professor states that he can change a flower girl’s entire behaviour and speech in such a way that in a few months she can be passed off as a duchess.

5. Climax: The scene between Eliza and Professor Higgins, when she throws away the jewellery he had given her, and they have a grand fight.

6. Ending: An ambiguous ending, left to the imagination of the viewer.

7. Use of lights and special effects, if any: The lights change frequently to depict various scenes and places.

8. Use of background music and sound effects, if any: This is a musical, with superb foot-tapping music and amusing lyrics. The sound effects and background music add authenticity to the market place scene, Eliza’s diction, the Professor’s anger, etc. and are excellent.

9. Use of sets: The sets change appropriately as per the needs of the play. There is not much time wasted in between acts.

10. The costumes, make-up, etc. of the characters: Excellent. The costumes of the early and mid-20th century are entrancing. The big hats with feathers, the lovely gowns, the Professor’s elaborate I suits, etc. are a sight to behold. The make-up is suitable.

11. How well the actors present the play and behave on the stage: The dialogue delivery and the movement of the actors on stage was smooth and flawless. The song-and-dance sequences were enacted perfectly.

12. Your own opinion about the play: An excellent and interesting play, with a classic British sense of humour. The characters portray this sense of humour very well. As a result, every single sentence is worth listening to, and every single song is melodious and meaningful.

Present these points in the form of a review, and give it a suitable title.

Review of ‘Pygmalion’ Bernard Shaw’s ‘Pygmalion’ centres round a bet made by Professor Henry Higgins, a well-know phonetician, with his best friend Colonel Pickering. The professor states that he can change a flower girl’s entire behaviour and speech in such a way that in a few months she can be passed off as a duchess.

The important characters in the play are Professor Henry Higgins, Eliza Dolittle, Colonel Pickering, Mr. Dolittle (Eliza’s father) and Professor Higgins’ mother. The play has been performed by newcomers, and there are no known names. It is a musical, with superb foot-tapping music and amusing lyrics. The sound effects, sets and use of lights add authenticity to the market place scene, Eliza’s diction, the Professor’s anger, etc. and are excellent.

The climax is the scene between Eliza and Professor Higgins, where she angrily flings the jewellery he had given her, and they have a grand fight, resulting in Eliza walking off from the house. The ending is ambiguous and left to the imagination of the viewer.

The costumes of the early and mid – 20th century are entrancing. The big hats with feathers, the lovely gowns, the Professor’s elaborate suits, etc. are a sight to behold. The dialogue delivery and the movement of the actors on stage is smooth and flawless. The song- and-dance sequences are enacted perfectly.

Overall, an excellent and interesting play, with a classic British sense of humour. The characters portray this sense of humour very well. As a result, every single sentence is worth listening to, and every single song is melodious and meaningful.

In the diagram below encircle the various features that make the script of a skit! play. List the other words and mention the form of writing of which it is a feature.

Answer:

Sender’s address – Part of a letter.

Salutation – Part of a letter.

Leadline – Part of a news report.

Diagram – Part of non-verbal communication.

2. Choose the proper alternative to complete the following:

The skit covers a period of about ………………. in the past.

(a) 3000 years

(b) 1000 years

(c) 5000 years

(d) 1800 years

Answer:

(c) 5000 years

…………….. characters from Neel’s ancestral lineage make an appearance in the play.

(a) Fourteen

(b) Seven

(c) Sixteen

(d) Twelve

Answer:

(a) Fourteen

The task that all boys abhorred was ……………. .

(a) cleaning up their room

(b) farm-work

(c) filling up water

(d) making their beds

Answer:

(d) making their beds

The skit conveys that doing your daily chores at home ………………. .

(a) make you stronger

(b) sharpens your intellect

(c) saves a lot of expenses

(d) inculcates a sense of responsibility

Answer:

(d) inculcates a sense of responsibility

Answer in your own words.

What excuses did Neel give to avoid cleaning his room?

Neel says that he is going out to meet his friends. He then says that he had cleaned his room just two days earlier. He wonders why it needs to be cleaned daily, for it makes no difference.

Why does mother tell Neel about his Grandpa?

Mother tells Neel about his Grandpa to make him realize that Grandpa had many more daily chores to finish than him, Neel, and much tougher ones too. He also had to make his bed, just like Neel would have to.

What task did Grandpa wish to avoid?

Grandpa wished to avoid the task of making his bed.

What did the ancestor from 1910 wish to do instead of making his bed?

The ancestor from 1910 wished to go to the riverside with his friends instead of making his bed

How many chores did the ancestor from 1800 have to do?

The ancestor from 1800 had to do about six chores.

How is the boy from 1500s dressed?

The boy from 1500s is dressed in a loose, sleeveless, V-neck top and a short dhoti.

What chores did the boys from the 1st century CE do on their farms/fields?

In the 1st century CE, the boys would feed the poultry, tend to the sheep, keep away the birds and plaster the yard with dung.

What did Neel realize from his encounter with his ancestors?

From his encounter with his ancestors, Neel realized that at that time teenage boys had chores to do outdoors as well as in their homes. They also had to make their beds.

5. In the play two devices that make use of wheels are given.

The devices are 1. …………….., 2. ………………..

From the internet or other sources, trace the history of the use of the wheel. Write ‘An Autobiography of a Wheel’.

In the play, two devices that make use of wheels are given are-

The devices are: 1. bicycle, 2. grinders

From the internet and other sources, trace the history of the use of the wheel.

(Students can attempt this on their own.)

6. Imagine that the ancestor from 1910 CE visits Neel in his dream. Compose a dialogue between the two about the various gadgets the visitor sees in Neel’s room

Answer:

Neel: Hello! Who are you, Sir?

Ancestor: I am your great-great-grandfather, Neel. I have heard a lot about your life, and I came to see you. Oh my! What are all these things here?

Neel: All these things? What things, great, great Grandpa?

Ancestor: This box here and that one there and this …

Neel: Oh, this is my TV set and that is my laptop. Haven’t you ever seen these things? This is my mobile phone.

Ancestor: TV? What is it? And phone – no, no, this is not a phone! Such a tiny thing!

(Students can continue this conversation in this manner.)

7. Imagine and compare an argumentative dialogue between the mothers of the 2Oth 2lst century and those of the earlier era, about which life was better for women.

21st Century mother: There’s no question. Your life was certainly better, Rukmini.

19th Century mother: Better, Reena? You mean, bending over the old wood stove and the grinding stone was better?

21st Century mother: That may have been difficult, Rukmini, but otherwise your life was peaceful. You only had to look after the home and family. While today, we …

19th Century mother: ‘Only look after home and family’? That was a full-time job! There were no short cuts like takeaways and ready-made stuff! And what about freedom? The freedom you have!

21st Century mother: Freedom with chains! I have to work hard both at home and in the office. I have to be a ‘supermom’ and ‘superboss’! Do you know how terrible it is?

(Students can continue the dialogue in this manner.)

8. Read the entry about ‘voice’ in the ‘Language Study’ pages. Note that the speeches of all the boys are in the ‘active’ voice. Turn them into passive constructions.

Example:

Neel – I put the dishes in the dishwasher. (active)

Dishes have been put in the dishwasher. (passive)

195 Boy – I have watered the garden

………………………………………..

brought home the groceries

………………………………………..

dusted the living room

………………………………………..

cleaned my bicycle…

9. Think of suitable names for the boys from the earlier centuries.

(Some examples: Vitthal, Namdeo, Manu, etc.)

10. Form groups of 5-8. Translate the play into your mother tongue (or Hindi) as a group activity. Enact the translation in the classroom.

11. Read ‘The Story of the Amulet’ by E. Nesbit.

Read the following passages carefully and complete the activities:

Fill in the blanks:

Answer:

Neel puts the dishes in the dishwasher.

Neel had cleaned his room two days earlier.

Neel forgets to make his bed.

Neel’s mother remembers something about his Grandpa.

Write if the following sentences are True or False:

The 1910s boy was wearing loose trousers and a shirt. 

False

The 1910s boy did many outdoor chores. True

The 1800s boy was rude to his mother. F

alse

The 1800s boy wanted to play Ashtapada with his friends. 

False

Name the following:

The game the 3000 BCE boy wishes to play: Chaupar

The yard is plastered with this: dung

The game the 100 CE boy wishes to play: Bagh-chal

Pots for cooking are made of this: mud

Write the antonyms of the following:

necessary × unnecessary

forgot × remembered

late × early

tougher × easier.

Match the given verbs with the nouns:

A B

1. fetched (b) water

2. cleared (d) channels

3. swept  (a) yard

4. pulled out (c) weeds

Fill in the blanks with the correct verbs from the brackets:

(fixed, washed, took, chopped)

The 1800s boy ……….. clothes, ………….. wood, ……….. the broken fence and ………….. the goats up to the hills to graze.

Answer:

The 1800s boy washed clothes, chopped wood, fixed the broken fence and took the goats up to the hills to graze.

Give the plurals of:

jewellery – jewellery

wood – wood

grandfather – grandfathers

terrace – terraces.

Give the noun forms of the following:

recede – recession

enter – entry

repeat – repetition

impossible – impossibility

Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice:

I have watered the garden.

The garden has been watered.

I have brought home the groceries.

The groceries have been brought home.

I have dusted the living room.

The living room has been dusted.

I have cleaned my bicycle.

The bicycle has been cleaned.

Mummy, I collected wood for the stove.

Mummy, wood for the stove has been collected.

I fixed the broken fence.

The broken fence has been fixed.

Rewrite the sentence in passive voice:

I fed the poultry.

The poultry have been fed.

Rewrite using the modal auxiliary for permission:

I need your kind permission to go out and play Chaupar with my friends.

May I go out and play Chaupar with my friends?

Rewrite the following sentences as assertive sentences:

Is it necessary to clean up every day?

It is not necessary to clean up every day.

What difference does it make?

It does not make any difference.

Personal Response:

Do you think you should make your bed every day?

Yes. In a dusty and tropical country like ours, we have to see that the beds are clean and dust- free. It also feels better to lie down on a clean and fresh bed. So we must make the beds every day.

Do you do any chores in the house? What chores?

I dust the furniture every day. I lay and clear the table before and after every meal. I fold clothes and keep them in the cupboard. These are my daily chores, besides keeping my own things like books, shoes, etc. in their proper places.

What do you do when you have to do a chore that you do not like?

If I have to do a chore that I don’t like, I first try to see if I can avoid it in some way, like getting someone to do it for me. If it is not a very important chore, like making beds, I ignore it till my mother shouts at me. If it is an important chore that cannot be avoided, I hurry up and do it as fast as I can to get it over with.

Which life would you prefer: your life of today or the life of a teenager in 3000 BCE?

I would certainly prefer my life of today. It is more interesting and I have more freedom. Life at any time without the computer, the TV and the mobile phone would have been terribly dull and boring. Oh, yes, life today is much better than it could have been in 3000 BCE.

Add question tags to the following statements:

That’s your daily work.

That’s your daily work, isn’t it?

I also chopped the wood.

I also chopped the wood, didn’t I?

Complex Factual Activity :

How is the boy from 1500s dressed?

The boy from 1500s is dressed in a loose, sleeveless, V-neck top and a short dhoti.

What chores did the boys from 1000 CE do on their farms/fields?

The boys from 1000 CE had to fetch water, clear blocked channels, water the crops and pull out the weeds.

Activities based on Contextual Grammar:

Rewrite the following sentence in the passive voice:

I have fetched vegetables from our farm.

Vegetables have been fetched from our farm.

Rewrite the following sentence as an assertive sentence:

Don’t talk back.

You should not talk back.

What chores did the boys from 1000 CE do on their farms/fields?

The boys from 1000 CE had to fetch water, clear blocked channels, water the crops and pull out the weeds.

Write two compound words from the lesson.

dishwasher, grandfather

Make a meaningful sentence using the phrase: pulled out

The slave pulled out the thorn from the lion’s paw.

Spot the error in the verb/verbs and correct the sentence:

I wish I had a robot to makes my bed and tidies up my room.

I wish I had a robot to make my bed and tidy up my room.

Pick out the infinitive from the given sentence:

You forgot to make your bed.

Infinitive – to make

Identity the type of sentence:

Ahhh! Yes! They didn’t have any electric grinders in those days!

Exclamatory sentence.

Find out two hidden words from the word:

permission

permission – mission, prism (prison, person)

Pick out the verb which forms its past participle with the last letter doubled.

collect, sleep, chop, tell

chopped

Write the following words in alphabetical order:

triple, recede, revered, stacked

recede, revered, stacked, triple

You haven’t cleaned up your room.

(Change the voice starting ‘Your

Your room hasn’t been cleaned up.

Use the word ‘right’ in two separate sentences, the word having different meanings (homographs):

(a) What you have done is not right.

(b) “Turn to the right,” said the policeman.

I put the dishes in the dishwasher.

(Use the past tense of the verb.)

I put the dishes in the dishwasher.

Prepare a word register for clothes.

clothes – trousers, shirt, kurta, pyjama, saree, dhoti, kurta, tunic.

Use the word ‘show’ in two separate sentences, once as a noun and once as a verb.

(a) The last show ended at midnight, (noun)

(b) “Show me your ticket,” said the doorkeeper. (verb)

If you try you can make such a robot.

(Pick out the clauses.)

you can make such a robot – Main Clause If you try – subordinate clause

Write ‘An Autobiography of a Wheel’.

An Autobiography of a Wheel

I am very, very proud of myself, for I am considered to be one of the most important of man’s inventions. Yes, I am the wheel.

It is said that my invention was the turning point in humĀan civilization. Of course, no one knows exactly when I was invented and by whom. As soon as I was invented and perfected, there was a revolution in the manufacturing industry. I was used for everything and by everybody – right from the potter to the assembly line of super-luxury cars. Yes, and planes and helicopters too. I am even used to go into space.

I help human beings and animals to pull things. I make work easy for them. The principle on which I work is the basic principle in many mechanical devices. Many of the things that were invented along with me have been forgotten, but I am accepted and still in demand today, in some form or the other. If I was not there, there would have been no cars, buses, trains or aeroplanes. Or even bullock carts. I know I sound proud, but that is not so. It is only that I know my own worth, and that I will be around as long as the wheel of time turns!

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