3.1 It Can Be Done 

Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions in one sentence each.

Who misses all the fun?

The man who has a negative approach in trying out new things and says ‘it can’t be done’ is the man who misses all the fun.
What does the title of the poem suggest?The title of the poem positively suggests that the things that we set our mind to complete can most definitely be done.

What does he man who misses all the fun do?

The man who misses all the fun wears an expression of solemn pride, remains away from other people and harshly criticizes any kind of new venture.

What does ‘who misses all the fun’ mean?

In the poem, this line refers to a person who likes to remain away from other people because of his solemn pride and is never ready to face any obstacle with a positive attitude of overcoming it.

What would he do if he had the power in him?

If he had the power in him, he would happily erase all the developments made by man and also the history of the human race.

What examples of man’s progress have been given in the poem?

The examples of man’s progress given in the poem are – radio, motor cars, street lights, telegraph and the telephone.

What should human beings do to make progress?

Human beings should have a positive outlook towards life which will help them overcome their difficulties and fears, and certainly help them to go ahead in the path of progress.

2. Form groups. List a few articles of everyday use. Discuss how they can be improved.

1. Doorbell: The doorbell that everyone has in their homes can only be clearly heard in one room. In order to improve the doorbell, we can install the doorbell device in the other rooms too.
2. Mosquito racket: Mosquitoes are the worst nuisance for man. The rackets work pretty well, but it would be better if we had a bigger net to easily capture the sly mosquitoes.
3. Mobile phones: Even though the mobile phone is owned by almost everyone, its battery life is pretty less, so it would be feasible if the battery life sustains for a longer time.

3. Form pairs. Discuss and prepare a list of things which can be and will be done in future. (5 things) Spot the modal verbs in your answer. 

The Leaning Tower of Pisa may be straightened.Cars will be travelling through air rather than by road.People might make trips to the moon for a vacation.We could have floating homes on water.People would be skating or cycling to their place of work.
The modal verbs in the above sentences are:

4. Complete the following sentences using your ideas. 

a. I can ……………..b. They can ……………..c. We can ……………..Answer:a. I can succeed.b. They can overcome their fears.c. We can conquer the world.


Read the following extract and complete the activities that follow:

Explain: The man who misses all the fun. Is he who says, “It can’t be done.”

The man who lacks courage to try out new things, and does not have positive attitude towards life is a man who misses all the fun and progress in life.

Pick out a word from the extract which means ‘an adventure’.


Pick out two pairs of rhyming words from the poem

fun – donealoof – reproofefface – racecars – starstelephone – stonerun – done

What would you do to achieve success?

I would try my very best in everything I do.I would not be disheartened with failures, instead it would motivate me to strive harder. I would not shirk my responsibilities when faced with difficult situations but would try my level best to come out of it successfully.

Writing Skills:

Write a paragraph on ‘Never Giving Up’.

Always complete well whatever you have begun even if you come across difficulties. God has given us the capacity and the capability so we should use it to the fullest. Never let the word ‘cannot do’ come into your mind. Always be positive. The small spider in the story of ‘King Bruce’ shows us that if we keep trying, we will surely succeed. Remember, never give up easily, ‘Try, try till you succeed’.

Project Wheels:

Think carefully for a minute. Tag your memory and recall all the things/objects on which you have seen wheels. Write them down.

Cycles, cars, trucks, trains, aeroplanes, carts, watches, toys, our National Flag, chair, table, trolley, skateboard, motorbike, bags, vacuum cleaner, baby carriage

Now talk to your friend or elders; refer to books and read about all the objects in which wheels are used. List them (How many did you miss out on in your first list? Why?)

Students should go through books and list down as many things they can find with wheels. (There was a time limit of one minute and so could not list down more.)

The wheel which was probably invented more than 6000 years ago is thought of as one of the greatest technological advances made by man. Why do you think the wheel is so important in human civilisation?
Though the wheel was made during the Stone Age period, it was the beginning of a revolution. Wheels helped the early man to transport goods from one place to another and thus began trade. Wheels moved slowly at first and caught momentum. Today we have progressed so far just because of wheels that is why I think the wheel is very important in human civilisation.
Can you imagine life without wheels? Try and think of what life would be like if there were no wheels around.
I cannot imagine life without wheels. Things would all be done at a very slow pace. There would be no technological development and we would not have reached the moon and other places without wheels.

Have you seen how wheels move on different surfaces like sand, gravel, grass or on a proper road? What are the differences you see?

Experience it yourself and write down how the wheels move on different surfaces. The first one is done for you.
(a) On sandy surfaces, wheels find it difficult to move. It is not smooth at all.(Tip: Students can ride their bicycles on the above mentioned surfaces and jot down their findings.)

It Can Be Done Summary in English

The poem “It Can Be Done” generalises that a person who lacks confidence and motto is the type of a person who remains stagnant in life and naturally unsuccessful. The poem explains that without hard work and sheer determination, man’s life wouldn’t be as developed as it is now.the poem suggests that the things that we set our mind to complete can most definitely be done. The man who misses all the fun wears an expression of solemn pride, remains very aloof and harshly criticizes any kind of new venture.If he had the power, he would happily erase all the developments made by man and also the history of the human race. We would then have no radio, no motorcars, no streetlights, no telegraphs, no telephone. We would still be living in the Stone Age. The poet says that the world would sleep if things were run by such men who had a negative approach to life saying, ’It can’t be done’.

 3.2 Seven Sisters 

 Textbook Questions and Answers

1.Choose any one of the Seven States. Find more information about it and prepare a leaflet or brochure to invite people to visit it. 

Arunachal PradeshNeolithic tools found in Arunachal Pradesh indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Arunachal Pradesh is the largest among the north-eastern states in terms of land area, even larger than Assam. It had the maximum number of regional languages in India.
English is used as the official language. Itanagar is the capital city of the state of Arunachal Pradesh. The majority of people of Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibet-Burman origin. Losar, Dree, Solung and Reh are the major festivals in the state of Arunachal Pradesh.

2. From the passage, find and write any two examples of the following.

Use of the verb ‘be’ (am, is, are, etc.) as the main verb.
I am a nature lovers’ heaven.My people are simple and hospitable.

Sentences containing ‘must’; ‘can’.

You must make it a point to visit the 400-year-old Buddhist monastery at Tawang and enjoy cultural festivals at Ziro.The natural beauty here is exquisite and must be seen to be believed!

You can enjoy the panoramic view of Bangladesh from here.My capital is Imphal where you can see the cyclists’ velodrome.

Sentences beginning with ‘Don’t’.

Don’t miss the Namdapha Tiger Project.Don’t forget to visit the Ahom palaces.

4. Write a short speech for the state of Maharashtra.

I am a state in the western region of India and am the second-most populous state of the world. I have more than 110 million inhabitants and my capital Mumbai has a population of approximately 18 million. Mumbai is the headquarters of all major banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and is also the financial and commercial capital of India.
I was formed on 1st May, 1960 which is celebrated as Maharashtra Day. My symbolic bird is the Yellow Footed Green Pigeon and animal is the Indian Giant Squirrel. My state is known for its mangoes. Maharashtra is symbolized by the traditional dance known as ‘Lavni’. The Rankala Lake in Kolhapur is considered to be the oldest of all lakes in my state.

Answer the following in one or two sentences.

What is Arunachal Pradesh known as?

Arunachal Pradesh is known as the ‘Land of the Rising Sun – the Land of the Dawn Lit Sun7.

What are the limestone caves known as?

The limestone caves are known as ‘Tapenuru7.

What should one not miss when one visits Arunachal Pradesh?

One should not miss the Namdapha Tiger Project when one visits Arunachal Pradesh.

What is Assam also known as?

Assam is also known as Ahom.

Where does Assam lie?

Assam lies between the beautiful valleys of the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers.

What is awesome to behold in Assam?

The picturesque landscape of the golden- green rice fields and landscaped tea estates is awesome to behold in Assam.

Name Assam’s silk fabrics which the fashion world loves.

‘Eri’, ‘Muga’ and ‘Pat’ are the names of the silk fabrics of Assam which are loved by the fashion world.

Name the major festival of Assam.

Bihu is the major festival of Assam.

What is Shillong called? Why?

Shillong is called ‘Scotland’ of the East’. It is so called because of its highlands, fog and scenery.

Which are the wettest places on the earth?

Cherrapunji and Mausinram are the wettest places on the earth.

When is the Wangala festival celebrated?

The Wangala festival is celebrated in autumn.

What are the nicknames of Manipur?

The nicknames of Manipur are Kangleipak or Sanaleibak.

Which game did Manipur introduce to the Europens?

The game of ‘polo’ was introduced to the Europeans in Manipur.

What does Mizoram imply?

Mizoram implies ‘land of the hill people’ referred to as the Kukis.

Why do we not have many tourists in Mizoram?

We do not have many tourists in Mizoram because travelling in Mizoram is a little difficult.

How was the Palak Lake believed to be created?

The Palak Lake is believed to be created as a result of an earthquake or a flood.

How is the terrain of Nagaland?

The terrain of Nagaland is mostly mountainous.

What is Nagaland an ideal place for?

Nagaland is an ideal place for trekking, rock climbing and jungle camping.

What is Nagaland known as?

Nagaland is known as the ‘Falcon Capital the World’.

What does ‘Tripura’ mean?

Tripura means ‘three cities’. It also means ‘near water’.

Answer the following.

What is Nagaland also known as?

Nagaland is also known as ‘Switzerland of the East’.

What makes Nagaland unimaginably beautiful?

The exquisitely picturesque landscapes, the vibrantly colourful sunrise and sunset, lush and verdant flora make Nagaland unimaginably beautiful.

What is the capital of Nagaland?

Kohima is the capital of Nagaland.

Which is the highest peak in Nagaland?

The highest peak in Nagaland is Mount Saramati.

Who inhabits the exotic hill state, Nagaland?

There are over 16 tribes and sub-tribes that inhabit the exotic hill state, Nagaland.

How are the Nagas by nature?

Nagas are lovers of fun and frolic by nature.

From the extract, write two words that are combined together to form one word.

Limitless, hombill, showcases.

There are over 16 tribes. (Change to simple past tense).

There were over 16 tribes.

State the part of speech of the underlined words.

a. The exquisitely picturesque landscapes make my land unimaginably beautiful.
exquisitely, unimaginably – Adverblandscapes – Normbeautiful – Adjective

Write on the Art and Culture of Nagaland which you like the most.

Nagaland is famous for the colourful and intricately designed costumes, jewellery and beads. Ethnic customs and traditions infusion with music and dance are what I like most about the art and culture of Nagaland.

Do as directed.

Assam tea is world famous! (State the kind of sentence)

Exclamatory sentence

I have lovely mountains. (Name the part of speech of the underlined words)

lovely – Adjectivemountains – Noun

I am home to a host of rare endemic plants. (Add a question tag)

I am home to a host of rare endemic plants, aren’t I?

Come and visit me. (Make it negative)

Don’t leave without visiting me.

We ……….. peaceful people. (Fill with the correct form of the verb ‘be’)

We are peaceful people.

You come and stay with us. (Use the modal ‘must’ and rewrite.)

You must come and stay with us.

Garia, Durga Puja, Buddha Poumima, Pous Sankranti, Kharchi, Bijhu, Christmas. (Arrange in alphabetical order)

Bijhu, Buddha Pournima, Christmas, Durga Puja, Garia, Kharchi, Pous Sankranti

The folk dances of tribal people captivate the beholders. (Separate the Subject and Predicate)

Subject: The folk dances of tribal people Predicate: captivate the beholders.

I am difficult for you to access. (Change into negative)

I am not easy for you to access.

Don’t forget to visit the Ahom palaces. (Change into affirmative)

Do remember to visit the Ahom palaces.

Writing Skills:

Write an essay about the state you like most.

KeralaIn the 14th Century, the state of Kerala had become a linguistically distinct region. The Sanskrit epic, Aitareya Aranyaka was the first to mention Kerala in it.
The Malayalam language was developed as a language under the Chera Empire- II. Ever since the 8th century, trade was established in Kerala with the Arabs. In the year 1498, the Portuguese started trade with this state. This was followed by the Britishers and the Dutch, who commenced the trade in the 16th century.
Kerala is known to be the first literate state in India and the first state to implement land reform bills and education reform bills The state of Kerala has a lower birth rate as compared to the other states and has the least infant mortality rate along with the maximum life expectancy.
Kerala is known as the celestial land (God’s own country) for its natural beauty. Kerala is rich in cashew, coconut, arecanut, tapioca, banana, rice, ginger, pepper, vegetable plantations and sugarcane. It is truly a paradise on earth!!!

Seven Sisters Summary in English

1. Arunachal Pradesh: Arunachal Pradesh is also known as the ‘Land of the Rising Sun’. It is rich in fauna and flora. It is famous for its delicacy called ‘momos’, and the 400-year-old Buddhist monastery. It is India’s first orchid sanctuary.2. Assam: Assam is also known as ‘Ahom.’ Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park are the World Heritage Sites. Assam is known for its tea plantations. Assam’s silk fabrics ‘Eri’, ‘Muga’ and ‘Pat’ are famous worldwide. Its major festival is Bihu and it has many beautiful Ahom palaces.3. Meghalaya: Meghalaya is also called ‘Scotland of the East.’ Languages spoken there are English, Khasi, Pnar and Garo. It is rich in minerals such as coal, limestone, uranium and sillimanite. Cherrapunji/Mausinram, the wettest places on earth are located here. It comprises of the longest cave is called the Krem Liat Prah and the deepest cave called the Synrang Pamiang.4. Manipur: Manipur is also known as ‘Kangleipak’ or ‘Sanaleibak’. Many people here speak Meetei/ Manipuri language. It has the Keibul Lamjao National Park consisting of endangered species of brow antlered deer. The ecosystem has 17 rare species of mammals and is the only floating national park of the world. The martial arts of Manipur, ‘Thang Ta’ and ‘Sarit Satak’ are worth witnessing.5. Nagaland: Nagaland is also called the ‘Switzerland of the East’. Kohima is the capital of the mostly mountainous state. Mount Saramati is the highest peak with the height of 3,840 m orming a natural barrier between Nagaland and Burma. It is also known as the ’Falcon Capital of the World’, where the great Indian hornbill is also found.6. Mizoram: Mizoram is also known as ‘Kukis’. Its capital is Aizawl. Palak Lake is the biggest in Mizoram and covers 30 hectares. Champhai is called ‘the fruit bowl’ of Mizoram. There are 6 wildlife sanctuaries and 2 national parks here, with ‘Mizo’ being the most widely used language.7. Tripura: Tripura means ’3 cities’ and also means ‘near water’. Tripura has 3 distinct geographical zones. The chief rivers here are Gumti, Muhuri and Feni. Agartala is the capital of Tripura. It is famous for its eco-tourism and archaeological tourism. Here, people from all the states participate in festivals like Garia, Durga Puja, Buddha Purnima, Kharchi, Pous Sankranti, Bijhu or Christmas.The lesson ‘SEVEN SISTERS’ is that which tells us about the seven Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura that lies in the north-east of India. Sikkim is a state similar to theirs but it lies further in the north-west of India and is called the only brother of the north eastern region. The ‘seven sister states’ is also called Paradise Unexplored. The lesson gives us an insight of the beauty of India with its various cultures, cuisines and traditions. The lesson makes us feel proud of our motherland, India. 

 3.3 Stone Soup

 Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions.

Where does the story take place?

The story takes place in a village.

List the characters in the play and write one or two lines about each.

1. Motiram – He is a farmer. He had a good produce of crops. He does not want to advertise because he is afraid he would have guests at home and he would have to share with them.2. Sonabai – She too had a good produce. She too like Motiram did not want to advertise because she does not like to have guests.3.Hirabai – She too feels that guests are pests. She hates to give food and money to others.4. Rupabai – She thinks a little differently. She feels it is not right to refuse someone who comes for help.5.Traveller – He is a traveller who has travelled a long distance and is tired and hungry. He hears the conversation of the villagers and comes to know that they are miserly. In the end he makes everyone contribute a little towards making of the soup.

How do the following avoid giving anything to the traveller?

Motiram – He tells the traveller that dinner was over and nothing was left. He tells the traveller to try elsewhere.Sonabai – She pretended to be hard of hearing which eventually made the traveller try elsewhere.Hirabai – She pretended not to understand the traveller’s language and spoke gibberish (nonsense) which made the traveller try elsewhere.Rupabai – She told the traveller that she too was very hungry because she had not made anything as her larder was empty.

Find what Hirabai tells the traveller by reading her words from right to left.

Go away. No food and no rest for anyone here.

Apart from the stone, how many things go into the soup?

Apart from the stone, water, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, beans, onions, ginger, salt and pepper go into making the soup.
Does the traveller really have a magic stone?
No, the traveller does not have a magic stone, but he uses the stone to make the miserly villagers believe that the stone was magical.
2. On any one page, note against the speech of every character, what feelings it should show to bring out the meaning best. For example, joy, fear, anger, nervousness, friendliness, dislike, surprise, wonder, excitement, politeness, rudeness, cunning, curiosity.
Rupabai – surprise, wonderTraveller – regretRupabai – cunningTraveller – joy, expectationRupabai – unsureSonabai – friendlinessHirabai – apologetic
3. Read aloud / Enact the play.
4. Write a recipe for the stone soup.

The Stone Soup

Once upon a time a tired and weary traveller came to a village. The Sun had just set. The traveller was very hungry and very tired. He hoped to get food and shelter in the village. He saw cottages in a row and walked towards them when suddenly he heard voices of people chatting. He stopped to hear ….Now can you continue with the story.

5. Form pairs. Write at least one short dialogue for each of the following expressions.

(a) I agree (b) True! (c) You are right (d) Why not? (To mean that something can be done) (e) Thank youFor example:(a) Amit: I think all schools should have big playgrounds.Sumit: I agree!
(b) Mohit: It has been raining cats and dogs.Rohit: True!
(c) Sangeeta: There is a solution to every problem.Neeta: You are right.
(d) William: Will I be able to complete this project all by myself?Mother: Why not?Rohini: Here are the English notes you wanted.Sohini: Thank you

6. Find the meaning of ‘Charity begins at home/ Find other sayings which have a similar meaning.

Find the meaning of ‘Charity begins at home/ Find other sayings which have a similar meaning
‘Charity begins at home.’ The meaning of this proverb is – A person’s first responsibility is to look after the needs of their own family and friends.Saying with similar meanings.
Charity and beating begins at home – John Fletcher.Home is where the heart is.Home sweet home.A home away from home.Now you add some more.

7. List five questions from the play which can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

(a) Does it melt away?(b) Have you guessed the secret of the stone soup?(c) Do you think that is right?(d) Can I have some food?(e) Anyone at home?

8. Smart Answers: Form a large group. Each person asks the next one a question to get him to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’. He/She can use appropriate statements, requests or even other questions as a response. But if he/she says ‘yes’ or ‘no’, he/she is out. Otherwise he/she continues the game. Questions cannot be repeated.
To be done by students.
9. Visit a library: Find stories about hosts and guests. Share them with the class. Classify the stories into funny and serious stories.
To be done by students

Reading Skills, Vocabulary and Grammar

State whether the following statements are true or false.

a. Rupabai thought differently.b. The villagers notice the traveller when they were chatting outside Motiram’s house.
a. Trueb. False

What time of the day was it when the villagers were chatting?

It was evening time when the villagers were chatting.

What did Hirabai think of guests?

Hirabai thought of guests as nuisance.

Uninvited guests are pests according to (Choose the correct alternative)

(a) Sonabai(b) Hirabai(c) Motiram(d) Rupabai
(b) Motiram

Add a prefix to get the opposite of Polite


Guests can be a nuisance. (Pick out the modal verb and add a question tag)

Modal verb – can Guests can be a nuisance, can’t they?

Uninvited guests are pests. (Frame a ‘Wh’ question to get the underlined word as the answer)

What are uninvited guests?

I never waste good food. (Identify the kind of sentence)

Assertive/Declarative – Negative

You are right. (Change into negative)

You are not wrong.
Personal Response:

Should we help people in need? Justify.

Answer:Yes, we should help people in need if we can. Helping others will surely give us satisfaction and we will feel happy. The person whom we help also is happy. We should remember the saying ‘What goes around comes around.’

Do as directed.

Who are you, young man? (Kind of sentence)

Interrogative sentence.

I am not defeated. (Make it affirmative)

I am undefeated.

I can hardly believe this. (Pick out the modal auxiliary)

Modal auxiliary – can

I have not seen you around. (Add a question tag)

I have not seen you around, have I?

I’m a poor, footsore traveller. (Pick out the adjectives)

Adjectives – poor, footsore.

You can taste the goodness of fresh vegetables. (Frame a ‘wh’ question to get the underlined words as the answer)

What can you taste?

It reminds me of the soup I had made some time ago. (Change the verb into past perfect)

It had reminded me of the soup I had made some time ago.

Student’s Activity:

Write a simple recipe of your choice. Remember:

(a) Ingredients(b) Method
To be done by students.

Stone Soup Summary in English

The play ‘Stone Soup’ revolves around selfish and miserly villagers, Motiram, Sonabai, Hirabai and Rupabai and a traveller. The villagers who have their cottages closeby are discussing about people who come uninvited. They do not like to have guests, more so uninvited ones. A traveller weary and hungry enters their village and tries asking for help, but each of the villagers give some excuse not to help the travellers. In the end the traveller plays a trick on the miserly villagers, brings out a magic stone and prepares a wonderful soup, that too with things (vegetables/ items) given by the villagers themselves.

 3.4 Sushruta

  Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions:

Who was Sushruta?

Sushruta was a bright student of veterinary medicine.

Who was Shalihotra?

Shalihotra was Sushruta’s teacher.

What question did Shalihotra ask to test Sushruta?

The question Shalihotra asked to test Sushruta was, ‘What all would be needed to perform a surgery on a wonderful horse?’

How long a period did Shalihotra allow to find the missing things?

Shalihotra gave Sushruta a week to find the missing things.

How did Sushruta find the missing things? (Select appropriate answer)

1. By reading several books 2. By consulting his friends3. By observing his teacher carefully and thinking about what he did4. By meditating
Answer:7.By observing his teacher carefully and thinking about what he did.

Who erected the first known veterinary hospitals of the world?

The great Emperor Ashoka erected the first known veterinary hospital of the world.

2. What were the three things that Sushruta discovered?

The three things that Sushruta discovered was that, a good veterinarian should have
an eagle’s eyea lion’s hearta mother’s touch

3. Explain the meaning of the following phrases:

(a) An eagle’s eye, (b) A lion’s heart, (c) A mother’s touch. Answer:  a. an eagle’s eye – a close watch, observe keenly The tigress watched her cubs with an eagle’s eye to keep them away from danger. b. a lion’s heart – someone who is very brave The Indian soldiers fought with a lion’s heart and won. c. a mother’s touch – tender, loving, caring touch I am not scared of my dentist because he has got a mother’s touch in all that he does.

4. Narrate the story of Susharuta in your own words.

Susharuta was an Indian Ayurvedic physician who known as the ‘Father of India medicine’ or ‘Father of surgery’. He also is a veterinary doctor and famous in veterinary science of India. Sushruta had a great knowledge about the treatment of animals. Through Shalihotra gained all the knowledge of surgery from Sushruta. Sushruta was also an good teacher who teacher about surgery to many others. Three things found by Sushruta before operating the horse, these were –
‘A good veterinarian should have an eagle’s eye.‘A good veterinarian should have a lion’s heart.’‘A good veterinarian should have a mother’s touch too.’Sushruta transformed the view of veterinary sciences.

5. Write short notes on the following:

Veterinary Science in ancient India
Veterinary therapy developed very early in India. Based on the Ayurveda, Indian veterinary medicine is known for its specialised literature, which provides information on ancient methods of preventing and treating diseases of animals. Shalihotra, the founder of veterinary medicine, has been attributed the oldest existing veterinary texta treatise entitled ‘Asvayurveda Siddhanta’.

Care of animals in the regime of Emperor Ashoka.
The great Emperor Ashoka erected the first known veterinary hospitals of the world. Giving the animals general tonics and stimulants was practiced in order to ensure good mental and physical health. Prevention of the occurrence of diseases was also given importance. Cleanliness of animals, maintenance of stalls and stables, quality of food, disadvantages of overfeeding were also looked after during the regime of Emperor Ashoka.
Utilization of animal by-products in the ancient world.
Utilization of animal by-products was also done wisely by our ancestors. Conversion of milk into butter, ghee, curd, khoa, etc., was practiced. Chicken for its meat and sheep for its wool were also utilized in the ancient world.

6. Form pairs. Complete the following table through discussion

Quality Reasons
Housewife Loving, caring, organised, cheerful Should be proud for the well-being and warmth of the familySportsman Sporting, team spirit, confident, accept defeat with a smile Should not be proud, accept defeat in the right spiritArtist Should have an aesthetic mind Should be able to express his feelings through artSinger Have a good voice modulation Should be able to enthrall the audienceAuthor Good writer, convey messages through writings Young and old should be able to learn and love readingUmpire Should be knowledgeable, observant and impartial Should take the right decision to be fearlessActor Should know the art of acting naturally Should be a good entertainerScientist Discover science which is useful to mankindShould be an asset to the society

7. Note these pairs of words: care-carefully, equal-equally.

Here we see that the letters ‘-ly’ are added at the end of the word to make another word. A letter or group of letters added at the end of a word to make another word is called a words from the following
subsequent, frequent, wise, immense, beautiful
subsequent – subsequentlyfrequent – frequentlywise – wiselyimmense – immenselybeautiful – beautifully

Find two examples each, of the words made by using the following suffixes.

-ness, -er, -let, -ful, -tion/sion, -y
ness – awareness, cleanlinesser – recover, careerful – wonderful, sorrowful, painfultion/sion – information, cultivation, professiony – quickly, carefully, equally, veterinarylet – booklet, armlet, leaflet, owlet

8. Frame questions beginning with the following words, based on the above passage.

9. Who, What, Where, When, How, Why (One question each)

Who are veterinarians?
What did Nakula write?
Where did Emperor Ashoka arrange for cultivation of herbal medicines for men and animals?
When did veterinary therapy develop in India?

How did Shalihotra treat animals?9. Visit a library: Find more information/stories about scholars of the ancient world – Aryabhatta, Bhaskaracharya, Varah Mihir, Charak, Nagarjuna, Jeevak.

State whether the following statements are true or false.

a. Veterinary Sciences is a chosen career nowadays.b. Utilisation of animal by-products was practiced in the ancient world.
a. Falseb. True

Why is veterinary sciences not a chosen career?

Veterinary sciences is not a chosen career because of lack of awareness.

What kind of veterinarians does India need?

India needs veterinarians who empathize with animals and give their cent percent to the profession.

Pick out two Indian words from the extract.

Answer:Ghee, khoa

Give verb forms of:

conversion convertknowledge   knowutilisation   utiliseprofession  profess

Write the antonyms of by using a prefix.

utilisation × unutilisationcommon × uncommonawareness × unawarenesswisely × unwisely

Personal response:

What would you like to take up as a profession when you grow up?

I would like to become a veterinarian when I grow up basically because I love animals. I would like to do something in this field which is necessary because animals are dumb creatures and cannot vocalise their problems. I would love to make life easy for animals.

Language Study

List all the words related to surgery from the passage.

Instruments, medicine, dressing of wounds bandaging of fractures, specialist. Now you add more to the list.

List words related to milk from the lesson.

Answer:Milk – ghee, butter, curds, khoa
A letter or group of letters added at the end of a word, to make another word is called a suffix.e.g.: care – carefully; equal – equally

(a) Use the suffix ‘-ly’ to make other words from the following.

hungry – hungrilygreedy – greedilyslow – slowlyhaste – hastilyquick – quickly

(b) Find two examples of each of the words made by using the following suffixes.

ist – specialist, activistance – maintenance, importance

Sushruta Summary in ENGLISH

Part 1 of Sushruta talks about Sushruta, a bright veterinary student and his teacher Shalihotra, who decided to test him. Shalihotra asked Sushruta to list down the equipments which are needed to perform a surgery. Sushruta had everything right but missed on three things, which he found out through careful observation of his teacher.
Part 2 acquaints us with veterinary therapy which developed very early in India and how it was used by great kings like Chandra Gupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka to treat their animals accompanying their armies and cattle as well. Animal by-products were used by our ancestors. Indians need to be made more aware of veterinary sciences as a career which is the need of the hour.

 3.5 The Donkey 

Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Rewrite the poem in the form of a prose passage.

The one-day-old foal tries to explore his surroundings but his shaky legs and large head render his steps rather clumsy than normal. He tries to frolic and leap but doesn’t quite know how to do it. His head, just like human babies, is too heavy for his weak neck to firmly hold it. He adorned with a rather strange coat in the guise of soft, grey fur in a lovely way around his neck.
His face looked serious, almost as if he was thinking of something that life longed for. He unsteadily moved around, as if on a daring, adventurous quest. Just when he lay down to relax, the poet realized how puny he was and hoped that the world treated the frail foal with care.

2. List the pairs of rhyming words in the poem.

The pairs of rhyming words in the poem are:old – hold; loose – use; bit – it, grey – way; doubt – about; quest – rest; slim – him; round – ground

3. What does the poet pray for? Why?

The poet realizes that the one-day-old donkey is very frail and certainly can’t take care of himself. He prays that the world treats the little foal with care.

4. Have you seen a newborn of an animal?

Yes, I have seen the newborn of a dog. The newborns, that is the puppies cling onto their mother for their dear life. They are very puny and their mother is very protective of them. All the puppies nestle close to their mother at the time of drinking milk.

5. Talk to your parents and family members and write what you could do when:

you were a day oldyou were one month oldyou were six months oldyou were one year old.

6. Form groups and hold debutes on the following topics. Make bulleted lists of points in favour (pros) and those against (cons) the given statement. Let the whole class vote on who won the debate.

a. Man should use animals for his own needs.b. Contact with ‘flan has helped animals to survive.Answer:
Animal testing has contributed to many life¬saving cures and treatments.There is no other alternative method to testing on a whole body system.Animals are appropriate research subjects because they are similar to human beings in many ways.Animal research is highly regulated with laws in place to protect animals from mistreatment.Animals often make better research subjects than human beings because of their shorter life spans.

7. Find what the young ones of the following animals are called.

donkey – foal swan – cygnethorse – foal eagle – eagletlion – cub duck – ducklingtiger – cub peacock – peachickelephant – calf kangaroo – joeysheep – lamb deer – fawncow – calf frog – tadpolepig-piglet butterfly – caterpillarwhale – calf goose – goslingowl – owlet goat – kid

8. Complete the following using your own ideas.

His head is too……………….  .

His head is too big to hold his neck.

He was too shy to ……………… .

He was too shy to sing for the class.

She was too proud to ……………….. .

She was too proud to apologise.

They were too tired to ………………… .

They were too tired to explore any further.

We are too busy to ……………….. .

We are too busy to go on a vacation.

He was too lazy to ……………. .

He was too lazy to open the door.

9. Write a conversation between: (One is done for you. Write dialogues for the other two.)

A donkey and a horse
Horse: How are you, Mr. Donkey?Donkey: Not so good. No time for enjoyment. How are you?Horse: I am good. I have got a good master. He takes good care of me.Donkey: My master is good too but he is poor. I am made to work from dawn to dusk.Horse: That is sad, dear. I hope things get better for you.Donkey: I don’t know about that. You know we are known as the ’beasts of burden’. We only carry loads of luggage on our back.Horse: I know. We are lucky. We have to carry our masters on our back. Our , masters are very proud of us.Donkey: You are lucky. People sit on you with pride. The same cannot be said about us. No one likes to sit on donkeys.Horse: That is very sad. I know that people look down upon donkeys. They do not like to sit on donkeys because they feel it below their dignity.Donkey: People feel that donkeys are there only to carry burden. They feel that donkeys are foolish. I have heard people and it is so disheartening to hear this statement.Horse: I hope things get better for you and people understand your worth.Donkey: May your words come true and we too get the same respect as you get.Horse: Yes, that will happen. Times are changing. People are becoming aware that animals too need their space and should be treated well. Bye for now, see you sometime soon, with a smile on your face.Donkey: Yes, I too hope things would change for us. At least our children will then have a better life. See you dear horse!!!
If you saw someone ill-treating an animal, what would you do? Write about it in 5 lines.
If I were to see someone ill-treating an animal, the first thing I would do is calmly but firmly suggest the person to stop his misbehavior act. I will explain to him that these vulnerable animals can’t speak for themselves. I will tell him that it is our duty to protect them and not harm them. If he continues the ill-treatment, I would call the Animal Protection Services.

11. Visit a library, find poems about animals. Copy them and recite them to your friends. (To be done by the students)

Reading Skills and Poetic Device.

I saw a donkey which was year old.


He tried to gambol and frisk but could not do it confidently.


Answer the following.

How were the legs of the foal?

The legs of the foals were shaky, long and loose.

Describe the coat of the foal.

The foal had a queer, little coat, which was soft and grey and it curled at his neck making I look lovely.

Poetic Devices

Give the rhyme scheme of the first four lines.


Pick out a pair of rhyming words from the second stanza.

bit – it, 

I saw a donkey one day old. (Name the figure of speech)

The figure of speech is Alliteration. The sound of ‘d’ has been repeated for better poetic effect.

Personal Response.

Which animal/bird do you like? Why?

I like the peacock a lot. It is so beautiful to look at. It has wonderful colours on its body and when it spread out its plumage, it creates an awesome sight. The peacock is a royal bird and also our National Bird. These are the reasons why I love the peacock very much

Language Study.

From the following grid, find the words gievn below.

The Donkey Summary in English

The one-day old foal tries to explore his surroundings, but his shaky legs and large head render his steps rather clumsy rather than normal. He tries to frolic and leap but doesn’t quite know how to do it. His head, just like human babies, is too heavy for his weak neck to firmly hold it. He adorned with a rather strange coat in the guise of soft, grey fur in a lovely way around his neck.
His face looked serious, almost as if he was thinking of something that life longed for. He unsteadily moved around, as if on a daring, adventurous quest. Just when he lay down to relax, the poet realized how puny he was and hoped that the world treated the frail foal with care.

3.6 The Merchant of Venice

Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Say whether the following statements are true or false.

The merchant ships brought spices and other treasures from India and other countries to Italy.


Antonio had gone on a long voyage.


Bassanio was very rich.


Portia had many brothers and sisters.


Portia’s suitors chose the gold and silver caskets.


Bassanio borrowed money from Shylock in Antonio’s name.


Shylock was not at all generous.


Shy lock demanded a pound of Antonio’s flesh.


Portia saved Antonia in the court of law.


Antonio’s ships were lost at sea.


2. Write a few lines about each character.

Antonio:Antonio was a rich merchant who lived in the prosperous city of Venice in Italy. He sent his ships to faraway countries bringing back spices and other treasures, thus making a lot of profit. He was a kind man with many friends. His best friend was Bassanio, for whom he was even ready to stake his life.
Bassanio was a young and handsome nobleman with no money. He wanted to marry Portia. He had to go to Belmont to try his luck to marry Portia. He won Portia’s hand in marriage.

Portia was a beautiful and intelligent woman. She was the only daughter of a very wealthy man. Her father had died leaving her a large estate. Her father had written a will on how Portia’s husband had to be selected. Portia happily married Bassanio in accordance with her father’s will.
Shylock was a Jewish moneylender. He had a lot of money. He was not a generous person. Money was all that he cared for. He did not like Antonio and wanted to harm him. He got a chance to do so when Antonio went to him to borrow money for Bassanio. He readily gave the money but with a strange condition which was very cruel and inhuman.

3. Write the following in short:

The story of the three caskets
Portia’s father, a very wealthy man died leaving her a large estate. Her father had prepared a will in which he had written how her husband should be selected. He had to choose between three caskets – one of gold, one of silver and . one of lead. Each had something written on it and a message inside the box. The one who took the right casket which was the lead casket won Portia’s hand in marriage.

What the young lawyer pleaded?

Antonio was taken to court by Shylock to demand and fulfill his strange and cruel condition. If the condition was fulfilled, Antonio would lose his life. A lawyer entered the court to fight Antonio’s case. The lawyer requested Shylock to show mercy though the law was on his side.
The lawyer pleaded that mercy is a quality of God. He further said that when a person shows mercy to someone, both are blessed. He said that mercy was more valuable than a king’s crown. All the pleadings of the young lawyer did not have any effect on Shylock who stuck to his inhuman condition of wanting a pound of Antonio’s flesh.
The events at the court
When Antonio was taken to court by Shylock to get his inhuman demand fulfilled, the Duke who liked Antonio felt sorry for him. Portia asked Bassanio to pay Shylock double the amount which Shylock refused. Everyone in the court considered Shylock’s demand to be inhuman.
The Duke asked Shylock to show mercy but Shylock refused. A young lawyer entered the court to fight Antonio’s case. This was the turning point. The lawyer fought for Antonio very cleverly and helped him get out of the inhuman condition.

4. Write the conditions that Portia put down to warn Shylock.

The young lawyer fighting Antonio’s case asked Shylock to show mercy. Shylock was adamant and stuck to the bond saying that all he wanted was a pound of Antonio’s flesh. The lawyer then cleverly allowed Shylock to take Antonio’s pound of flesh. The lawyer warned the Jew that while doing so, he should not shed even one drop of Antonio’s blood. He also warned Shylock that he should cut exactly one pound of flesh – nothing less and nothing more, according to the bond.

5. Find four words ending with ‘-ous’ from the story. Can you add three more words ending with ‘-ous’ to this list?


6. Read the following words. Write the words that are combined to make these words. Add ten more to the list on your own.

faraway – far, awaynobleman – noble, manwhoever – who, evermoneylender – money, lendersometimes – some, Times

7. Read the following chains of words:

fortune – fortunate – fortunately – unfortunatelyknow knowing – knowingly – unknowinglyamaze – amazing – amazinglypossible – impossible – impossibly

8. A letter or group of letters added to the front of a word to change its meaning and make a new word is called a prefix.

Examples: fortunately – unfortunately, agree – disagree, possible – impossible, human – inhuman, legal – illegal

9. Add proper prefixes to the following words to make new words:

kind – unkindintelligent – unintelligentadvantage – disadvantagehappy – unhappyallow – disallowsafe -unsafe

10 Find at least three sentences in the story which have modal verbs.

Portia’s husband should be selected.


Whoever chooses me, must give and hazard all he has.


Shylock would cut off a pound of Antonio’s flesh.


He was very happy that Antonio would not be able to pay the money.

would – modal
But what could he do?
could – modal

11. Visit a library. Read other tales by Shakespeare, for example, Julius Caesar, As You Like It, Macbeth and The Tempest.

12. Hold a mock trial for any one of the following offences. There should be a complainant, a defendant, and lawyers to argue that case on behalf of them. The whole class can vote to pass the judgement. On what occasions will you plead for justice? What punishment will you suggest? When will you plead for mercy?

13. a. A very poor and honest servant has broken a vase while cleaning it. The vase was valuable and the employer liked it very much.

 b. A poor man stole some ornaments from a rich girl. c. A young man was injured in a road accident due to another man’s careless driving.

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.

Where did Antonio live?

Antonio lived in Venice, a prosperous city in Italy.

What did the ships of adventurous merchants bring back?

The ships of adventurous merchants brought back spices and other treasures from India and other countries.

What made the merchants rich?

The merchants sold the merchandise brought back from other countries in Europe and made a lot of profit, thus making them rich.

Who was Bassanio?

Bassanio was a young and handsome nobleman, who had no money.

What had the suitors of Portia to choose between?

Portia’s suitors had to choose between three caskets – one of gold, one of silver and one of lead.

What was written on the gold casket?

‘Whoever chooses me shall gain what men desire’ was written on the gold casket.

What was written on the silver casket?

‘Whoever chooses me shall get as much as he deserves’, was written on the silver casket.

What was written on the casket of lead?

‘Whoever chooses me must give and hazard all he has’, was written on the casket of lead.

Who chose the gold casket?

The Prince of Morocco chose the gold casket.

What was the message on the gold casket?

The message on the gold casket was, ‘All that glitters is not gold’.

Who was Shylock?

Shylock was a Jewish moneylender.

Why did Shylock dislike Antonio?

Shylock disliked Antonio because he sometimes lent money to people without charging any interest on it.

What was the strange condition Shylock put to Antonio?

The strange condition Shylock put to Antonio was that if Antonio failed to return the money he borrowed from Shylock within three months, he would cut a pound of Antonio’s flesh.

What news made Shylock happy? Why?

The news that Antonio had lost his ships made Shylock happy. He was very happy because he was sure that Antonio would not be able to repay the money he had borrowed from Shylock.

Why was Antonio unable to avoid Shylock’s strange condition?

Antonio was unable to avoid Shylock’s strange condition because Antonio had written a bond to that effect.

What did Portia tell Bassanio to do to save Antonio?

Portia told Bassanio to pay Shylock twice the amount to save Antonio.

Why did Shylock want revenge?

Shylock wanted revenge because he felt that Antonio and the others had treated him badly before.

What was mercy more valuable than?

Mercy was more valuable than a king’s crown.

What did the lawyer warn Shylock while cutting off Antonio’s flesh?

The lawyer warned Shylock that while cutting off the flesh, Shylock should not shed even one drop of Antonio’s blood. The lawyer also told Shylock that he should cut exactly one pound of flesh – nothing less and nothing more.

How was Antonio’s life saved?

When Shylock realised that he could not do what the young lawyer had asked him to do, he accepted defeat and thus Antonio’s life was saved.

Why do you think Portia’s father prepared such a will?

Portia was the only daughter of a wealthy man. Her father had died leaving Portia all his fortune and estate. He knew that Portia being alone could be cheated and would lose her wealth and property. So in order that Portia would get a good husband, Portia’s father made his will in this manner.

Write 3 sentences about Antonio.

Antonia was a rich merchant of Venice, a prosperous city in Italy. He sent his ships to faraway countries bringing back spices and other treasures, thus making a lot of profit. He was a kind man with many friends. Bassanio was his best friend for whom he was ready even to stake his life.

When were sea voyages dangerous?

Sea voyages were dangerous about five hundred years ago.

What was Antonio waiting for? Why?

Antonio was waiting for his ships to return with merchandise. He was waiting for the ships because he had put almost all his money in the ships.

Antonio was a kind man. (Change into a negative sentence)

Antonio was not an unkind man. OR Antonio was not a cruel man.

Give the antonyms of:

a. dangerous × harmless, safeb. kind × unkind

What are the qualities you would like in your best friend?

A friend is one who is kind and good natured. He/She must be approachable so that I can tell him/ her my problems without being judgmental about me. I must feel free to confide all my happy as well as sad moments with him/ her. A best friend is one who makes you laugh a little louder, smile a little brighter and live a little better. These are the qualities I would like in my best friend.

Find four words ending with ‘-ous’ from the story. Add some more of your ownwords ending with ‘-ous’ to this list.

  • dangerous
  • advantageous
  • wondrous
  • treacherous
  • mountainous

Read the following words. Write the words that are combined to make these words. Add ten more to the list on your own.

cupboard – cup, boardcareless – care, lesspainless – pain, lesscomfortable – comfort, ablehandsome – hand, someforward – for, wardphotograph – photo, graphstrawberry – straw, berrypineapple – pine, appleanywhere – any, where

Read the following chains of words:

1. taste – tasty – tasteful – tastefully2. fashion – fashionable – unfashionable – fashionably – unfashionably

Do as directed:

Bassanio was a young and handsome nobleman. (Name the word class of the underlined word)

young – adjective

He had no money. (Add a question tag)

He had no money, hadn’t he?

They made a lot of profit. (Identify the kind of sentence)

Assertive/Declarative – Affirmative
Antonio was waiting for his ships.a. Pick out the verb and state its tense.

b. Pick out the auxiliary (helping) verb from the sentence

a. was waiting – past continuous tenseb. was – auxiliary verb

The Merchant of Venice Summary in English

‘The Merchant of Venice’ written by William Shakespeare is a comical play. The story of the play revolves around Antonio, the rich merchant of Venice, his best friend Bassanio who wanted to marry Portia, the beautiful and intelligent daughter of a wealthy man but had no money to reach Belmont where Portia lived. Shylock, the Jewish moneylender who wanted a pound of Antonio’s flesh in exchange of the money he lent to Bassanio. In the court, Portia disguises as a man and fights Antonio’s case which ends on a happy note.

 3.7 At the Science Fair

  Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Answer the following questions:

What two basic rules were followed in the Science Fair?

The two basic rules to be followed in the Science Fair were:
Everything should be handled by students
The entertainment booths and refreshment stalls had to have a scientific base.

How early did the preparations for the Science Fair begin?

The preparations for the Science Fair began a couple of months in advance.

How was the committee formed?

A committee of parents and teachers was set up to look after all the work of the fair. Some students representative were also taken on the committee to give them a firsthand experience of managing big programmes.

What themes did the committee identify?

The themes identified by the committee were – Plant, Animals, Properties of Substances, Energy, Science in our Everyday Life, Latest News from the World of Science and Food and Nutrition.

How did the students prepare for their stalls/ presentations?

Stalls were allotted to many groups of children. Each group selected a topic/idea from the chosen themes. The young scientists began collecting a lot of information about their topic using their science text book, their school library and the internet. They shared and discussed this information in their groups and decided the exact activity for their stall deciding whether they would build and display a model, give a demonstration, present their project through posters or simply exhibit a collection.

What did Mr Gizare appreciate the most?

Mr Gizare appreciated the fact that in most of the stalls, visitors could try out the various science experiments and models.

What did the Clean Brigade do?

The Clean Brigade members made rounds of the Fair spreading the message of cleanliness and they had vowed to keep the school premises spick and span during the Fair.

2. Make charts to show the important points to remember while making –

Graphic Presentation:
Write to the point so that a visitor may read a chart or poster at a glance.Make use of bullet points or bulleted lists.Use pictures and diagrams and label them.Use pictograms, graphs, pie-charts etc. to show numerical data.Plan all your posters, charts properly before you start making them.Make a rough ‘mini-copy’ before you begin work on the big, final poster or chart.Don’t forget to check your spellings, sentences or other errors in the ‘mini-copy’ itself.Use different colours to highlight important features, but use them judiciously.If you have used any text, pictures, diagrams, etc. from elsewhere, acknowledge the source.

An oral presentation

Do’s Don’tsa. Keep the oral presentation short and to the pointa. Don’t cross the allotted time
b. Be confidentb. Don’t fidget
c. Rehearse the speech well c. Don’t use ‘umms’ and ‘errs’
d. Relate to the topics exhibited directly d.Don’t talk irrelevant things
e. Be ready to answer relevant questionse. Don’t give irrelevant answers
f. Use visuals or graphics .f. Don’t leave the walls of the stalls empty
g. Point to the relevant graphic or visual while speaking g. Don’t speak without pointing to visuals or graphics
h. Wear clean and tidy clothesh. Don’t dress up to show off
i. Be polite and pleasant when you talk to visitors i. Don’t be rude or fast while talking to visitors
j. Say out if you don’t know an answer j. Don’t talk everything else other than the answer
k. Smile, it makes others feel nice k. Don’t keep a grumpy face

3. Relate the themes of the fair to your science text book by writing the relevant chapter numbers under each theme.

To be done by students.

4. Find in your science textbook, the topics of the stalls handled by the students of VI A (Write the page number).

To be done by students.

5. What themes would you like to add to the themes given in this passage?

Why does honey crystallize?How to make a lemon battery?Build your own telescope.

6. Imagine you are visiting the Science Fair. What other stalls (apart from the ones mentioned here) are you likely to find there? Try to list at least five more stalls.

Use of empty aerated bottles as life belts to save from drowning.Manually rotating a wheel to generate electric energy.Replantation of a tree instead of cutting it down.

7. Using your imagination, and information from other sources, describe anyone stall in detail.

I visited a stall at the Science Fair. The theme of the stall was ‘Energy’, The experiments shown were to produce electricity at home and the method was very simple, but the part of the experiment was that it was so simple that anyone could try it out themselves at the stall.
The prize winning project was how to make lemon Battery.The aim of the experiment was to make Lemon Battery.The material used were 2 lemons, Copper wires, 2 large paper chips, 2 coins, a digital clock, scissors and a knife.Besides the Lemon Battery Projects, there were other projects which focussed on the use of Kinetic Energy, Uses of Potential Energy, Electrostatic Energy, Sound, Food adulteration, Mechanical Energy and Fun with Magnets. Also Charts were put up best with bold writing.

8. Choose a ‘question’ through your own observation. Try to follow the scientific method to find the answer to that question. Take the help of your teacher/parents to set up the experiment.

9. Visit a library: Find and read the biography of your favourite scientist.

At the Science Fair Summary in English

Science Fair is an opportunity for students to apply the scientific method to conduct independent research. The result is presented in a schoolwide science fair, where the student’s efforts are displayed, where students are questioned too. Students are helped by teachers and parents. They have to follow guidelines and be thoroughly prepared to answer any questions put across by visitors, regarding their topic.


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